mngon pa). One of the three parts of the Tripitaka, the Words of
the Buddha. Systematic teachings on metaphysics focusing on the
training of discriminating knowledge by analyzing elements of experience
and investigating the nature of existing things. The chief commentaries
on Abhidharma are the Abhidharma Kosha by Dignaga from the Hinayana
perspective and the Abhidharma Samucchaya by Asanga from the Mahayana
point of view.
| Acceptance of the nature of nonarising
(skye ba med pa’i chos la bzod pa). An important realization
gained on entry to the eighth bodhisattva stage. In this book a
synonym for complete enlightenment.
| Accomplishment. 1) (dngos
grub, Skt. siddhi). The attainment resulting from Dharma practice
usually referring to the ‘supreme accomplishment’ of
complete enlightenment. It can also mean the ‘common accomplishments,’
eight mundane accomplishments such as clairvoyance, clairaudiance,
flying in the sky, becoming invisible, everlasting youth, or powers
of transmutation. The most eminent attainments on the path are,
however, renunciation, compassion, unshakable faith and realization
of the correct view. See also ‘supreme and common accomplishments.’
2) (sgrub pa). See ‘four aspects of approach and accomplishment.’
| Action without intermediate
(mtshams med pa’i las). Five actions with the most severe
karmic effect: killing one’s mother, one’s father, or
an arhant; causing schism in the sangha of monks; and drawing blood
from a tathagata with evil intent. These actions can also be called
‘immediates’ because their karmic effect will ripen
immediately after death without leaving time to go through a bardo
| Activities (las, phrin
las). Usually referring to the four activities of pacifying, increasing,
magnetizing and subjugating. *not found
| Activity Garland Tantra
(karma ma le ‘phrin las kyi rgyud). A Mahayoga scripture listed
here as one of the Six Secret Sections. Sometimes also mentioned
as one of the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras as the tantra of enlightened
activity. Texts with this name are found both in Vol. TSA and SHA
of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Aeon (bskal pa, Skt. kalpa).
World-age, period, cosmic cycle.
| Age of Strife (rtsod dus).
The present world-age dominated by decline and degeneration.
| Amitabha (snang ba mtha’
yas). The chief buddha of the lotus family and lord of the pure
land Sukhavati. He is also the manifestation of discriminating wisdom.
| Amitayus (tshe dpag med).
See Buddha Amitayus.
| Amogha Pasha (don yod
zhags pa). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga also known as Meaningful
| Ananda (kun dga’
bo). One of the ten close disciples of the Buddha. The Buddha’s
personal attendant, who recited the sutras at the First Council
and served as the second patriarch in the oral transmission of the
| Anu Yoga (rjes su rnal ‘byor).
The second of the Three Inner Tantras. It emphasizes knowledge (prajna)
rather than means (upaya) and the completion stage rather than the
development stage. The view of Anu Yoga is that liberation is attained
through growing accustomed to the insight into the nondual nature
of space and wisdom. According to The Pool of White Lotus Flowers
by Shechen Gyaltsab, the teachings of Anu Yoga appeared in this
world when King Jah, a Dharma king also known as Lungten Dorje,
Vajra Prophesy, received empowerment and instruction from the Lord
of Secrets through which he gained full comprehension of the meaning.
The scriptural lineage he received from the human vidyadhara Vimalakirti.
The major texts of Anu Yoga are the Four Scriptures and the Summation.
King Jah transmitted the Anu Yoga teachings to the master Uparaja,
his own sons Shakputri, Nagaputri and Guhyaputri. Later lineage
masters include Singhaputra, Kukuraja the Second, and Rolang Dewa
(Garab Dorje). All the
masters up to this point attained enlightenment together with their
retinue and departed from this world without leaving a body behind.
The dissolution of the physical body can also be attained through
accomplishment in the mundane practices of essence-extract, manipulation
of and control over the vital essences (bindu) or through prana
mastery, but the accomplishment attained through the practice of
Anu Yoga is superior because of transmuting the physical body of
karmic ripening into luminosity by means of the practice connected
to the nonconceptual wakefulness of the path of seeing. Subsequent
masters in the transmission of Anu Yoga include Vajrahasya, Prabhahasti,
Shakya Little Light, Shakyamitra and Shakya Senge (Padmasambhava).
In India, Padmasambhava transmitted the teachings to Master Hungkara.
From him the lineage continued to Dewa Seldzey, Dharmabodhi, Dharma
Rajapala, Vasudhara of Nepal, Tsuklag Palgey, and finally Chetsen
Kye from the country of Drusha who translated the Anu Yoga teachings
into the Drusha language. This is the lineage that the translator
Sangye Yeshe of Nub brought to Tibet.
| Appearance and existence
(snang srid). The world and the sentient beings; whatever can be
experienced, the five elements, and has the possibility of existence,
the five aggregates.
| Approach and accomplishment
(bsnyen sgrub). See ‘Four aspects of approach and accomplishment.’
| Arhant (dgra bcom pa).
‘Foe destroyer;’ someone who has conquered the four
maras and attained nirvana, the fourth and final result of the Hinayana
| Arura (Skt.). Medicinal
plant endowed with many wonderful qualities.
| Assemblage of Secrets
(gsang ba ‘dus pa). A Mahayoga scripture. Vol. TSA of the
Nyingma Gyubum. Sometimes counted among the Eighteen Mahayoga
Tantras as the tantra of enlightened mind.
of Sugatas (bde gshegs ‘dus pa). ‘Deshek
Dupa.’ Important cycle of teachings connected to the Sadhana
Section of Mahayoga.
| Ati Yoga (shin tu rnal
‘byor). The third of the Three Inner Tantras. It emphasizes,
according to Jamgon Kongtrul the First, the view that
liberation is attained through growing accustomed to insight into
the nature of primordial enlightenment, free from accepting and
rejecting, hope and fear. The more common word for Ati Yoga nowadays
is ‘Dzogchen.’ The Ati Yoga teachings first appeared
in this world to Garab Dorje in the country of Uddiyana to the west
of India. According to The Narration of the Precious Revelation
of the Terma Treasures by Longchen Rabjam (p. 87-88), the great
master Padmasambhava described the teaching of Ati Yoga in the following
way before imparting them to Yeshe Tsogyal: “It is an instruction
unlike any I have given in the past, the summit that transcends
all of the nine gradual vehicles. By seeing its vital point, mind-made
views and meditations are shattered. The paths and levels are perfected
with no need for struggle. Disturbing emotions are liberated into
their natural state without any need for reform or remedy. This
instruction brings realization of a fruition within oneself that
is not produced from causes. It instantly brings forth spontaneously
present realization, liberates the material body of flesh and blood
into the luminous sambhogakaya within this very lifetime, and enables
you to capture the permanent abode, the precious dharmakaya realm
of spontaneous presence, within three years, in the domain of Akanishtha.
I possess such an instruction and I shall teach it to you!”
See also Great Perfection and Dzogchen.
| Atisha Dipamkara (Skt.).
Eleventh century Indian pandita from Vikramashila who spent the
last twelve years of his life in Tibet. Founding forefather of the
Kadampa School of Tibetan Buddhism; also known as Dipamkara Shrijnana
and Jowo Jey (jo bo rje).
| Atsara Yeshe (a tsar ye
shes). Same as Atsara Yeshe Yang of Ba. See under Yeshe Yang.
| Atsara Yeshe Yang of Ba
(sba a tsar ye shes dbyangs). Early Tibetan translator. Atsara is
a corrupt form of the Sanskrit word ‘acharya.’ See under
| Avalokiteshvara (spyan
ras gzigs) The bodhisattva of compassion; an emanation of Buddha
| Avatamsaka Sutra (mdo
phal po che). A sutra belonging to the third turning of the Wheel
of Dharma. Published as Flower Adornment Sutra, Shambhala Publications.
| Awakened mind (byang chub
kyi sems, bodhichitta). See bodhichitta.
| Awareness (rig pa). When
referring to the view of the Great Perfection ‘awareness’
means consciousness devoid of ignorance and dualistic fixation.
| Bardo (bar do). The intermediate
state between death and the next rebirth.
| Bashey. (sba bzhad). Chronicles
containing histories of the reigns of Trisong Deutsen and Muney
| Bhikshu (dge slong). A
practitioner who has renounced worldly life and taken the pledge
to observe the 253 precepts of a fully ordained monk in order to
attain liberation from samsara.
| Bhikshu Purna (dge slong
purna). The previous life of the Tibetan translator Vairotsana.
| Black Powerful One (stobs
ldan nag po). The chief figure in the mandala of Maledictory Fierce
Mantra among the Eight Sadhana Teachings.
| Bodhi (byang chub). Enlightenment,
awakening, state of realization. See also ‘enlightenment.’
| Bodhichitta (byang sems,
byang chub kyi sems). ‘Awakened state of mind.’ 1) The
aspiration to attain enlightenment for the sake of all beings. 2)
In the context of Dzogchen, the innate wakefulness of awakened mind;
synonymous with rigpa, awareness.
| Bodhisattva (byang chub
sems dpa’). Someone who has developed bodhichitta, the aspiration
to attain enlightenment in order to benefit all sentient beings.
A practitioner of the Mahayana path; especially a noble bodhisattva
who has attained the first level.
| Bonpo (bon po). The
religion prevalent in Tibet before the establishment of Buddhism
in the 9th Century.
| Border Temples (mtha’
‘dul). ‘Border Subduers.’ Four temples built by
Gampo and his Chinese queen to subjugate evil forces in
the outlying districts of Tibet.
| Boundless Life (tshe dpag
med pa, Skt. Amitayus). 1) Buddha Amitayus. 2) A Mahayana sutra.
| Brahma (tshangs pa). The
ruler of the gods of the Realm of Form.
| Brahma-like voice (tshangs
pa’i dbyangs). The voice endowed with the sixteen perfect
qualities of Brahma, the king of the gods. A common description
of a buddha’s speech.
| Brahman (bram ze, Skt.
brahmana). Member of the priestly caste.
| Buddha (sangs rgyas).
The Enlightened or Awakened One who has completely abandoned all
obscurations and perfected every good quality. A perfected bodhisattva,
after attaining true and complete enlightenment is known as a buddha.
The Buddha generally referred to is Shakyamuni Buddha, the buddha
of this era, who lived in India around the 6th century B.C. There
have been innumerable buddhas in past aeons who manifested the way
to enlightenment. In the current Good Aeon, there will be one thousand
buddhas of which Buddha Shakyamuni is the fourth.
| Buddha Amitayus (tshe
dpag med) Lit. ‘Buddha of Boundless Life; the Sambhogakaya
aspect of Amitabha. The buddha associated with the ‘empowerment
of longevity’ and longevity practice.
| Buddha Avatamsaka (sangs
rgyas phal po che). 1) A Mahayana sutra. 2) The buddha after whom
the Avatamsaka Sutra is named.
| Buddha Unchanging Light
(sangs rgyas ‘od mi ‘gyur ba). The primordial buddha
Samantabhadra; a synonym for the enlightened state of dharmakaya.
| Buddhadharma (sangs rgyas
kyi bstan pa, bstan pa, chos). Buddhism, the teachings of the Buddha.
| Buddhaguhya (sangs rgyas
gsang ba). An Indian master who visited Tibet and remained at Mount
Kailash where he taught emissaries of King Trisong Deutsen.
| Buddhahood (sangs rgyas).
The perfect and complete enlightenment dwelling in neither samsara
nor nirvana; the state of having eradicated all obscurations and
being endowed with the wisdom of seeing the nature of things as
it is and with the wisdom of perceiving all that exists.
| Causal philosophical teachings
(rgyu mtshan nyid kyi chos). The teachings of Hinayana and Mahayana
that regard the practices of the path as the causes for attaining
the fruition of liberation and enlightenment.
| Causal philosophical vehicles
(rgyu mtshan nyid kyi theg pa). The two vehicles, Hinayana and Mahayana.
Compare with ‘Resultant Vehicle.’
| Causal vehicles (rgyu’i
theg pa). See above.
| Cave of Yanglesho
(yang le shod kyi brag phug). Situated in the southern end of the
Kathmandu Valley, near the village of Pharping. The ‘Upper
Cave of Yanglesho’ is also known as Asura Cave.
| Chamara (rnga g.yab).
One of the eight sub-continents surrounding Mount Sumeru as well
as the support for the terrestrial pure land of Guru Rinpoche known
as the Glorious Copper Colored Mountain.
| Charnel ground (dur khrod).
A site where bodies are left to decompose or eaten by wild animals.
Frequented by ghosts and spirits, it is a suitable place for advanced
practitioners to gain progress in their realization.
| Chemchok Heruka (che mchog
he ru ka). See Most Supreme.
| Chimphu (chims phu). The
hermitage of caves above Samye in Central Tibet. Guru Rinpoche spent
several years there in retreat.
| Chinese teacher Hashang.
(rgya nag gi ston pa hva zhang). A certain Chinese meditation teacher,
Hashang Mahayana, whose view point was refuted by Kamalashila in
a public debate during the early spread of the teachings.
| Chiti Yoga (spyi ti’i
rnal ‘byor). One of the subdivisions of the Instruction Section
of Dzogchen: Ati, Chiti and Yangti. Chiti is defined as covering
the general points of Dzogchen.
| Chokro Lui Gyaltsen (cog ro klu’i
rgyal mtshan). Early Tibetan translator of great importance and
one of the twenty-five disciples
of Padmasambhava who recognized him as an incarnate bodhisattva.
He worked closely with Vimalamitra,
Jnanagarbha, Jinamitra and Surendrabohi. He is vital to the continuation
of the Vinaya lineage in Tibet. Having attained realization at Chuwori,
he aided Padmasambhava in transcribing and concealing terma treasures.
The great terton Karma Lingpa (14th cent.) is regarded
as an reincarnation of Chokro Lui Gyaltsen.
| Crystal Cave of Drag Yangdzong
(sgrag yang rdzong shel gyi brag phug). The retreat place of Padmasambhava’s
body. Situated between Lhasa and Samye in central Tibet.
| Crystal Cave of Yarlung
(g.yar klung shel gyi brag phug). One of the five major retreat
places of Guru Rinpoche; the place of enlightened qualities. It
is also the site where one of his chief disciples, Kharchen Yeshe
Shonnu, attained realization of Nectar Quality. Situated one
day’s walk above Tramdruk in the Yarlung valley, central Tibet.
| Daka (dpa’ bo).
1) Emanation of the chief figure in the mandala to fulfill the four
activities; male counterpart of dakinis. 2) Male enlightened practitioner
| Dakini (mkha’ ‘gro
ma). Spiritual beings who fulfill the enlightened activities; female
tantric deities who protect and serve the Buddhist doctrine and
practitioners. Also one of the ‘Three Roots.’
| Damaru (da ma ru). A small
hand drum for tantric rituals.
| Dark age (snyigs ma’i
dus). The present age when the five degenerations of life span,
era, beings, views and disturbing emotions are rampant.
| Demigod (lha ma yin).
One of the six classes of beings.
| Deva (lha). ‘Gods.’
The highest of the six classes of samsaric beings. Temporarily,
they enjoy a heavenly state of existence.
| Development and completion
(bskyed rdzogs). The two main aspects, ‘means and knowledge,’
of Vajrayana practice. Briefly stated, development stage means positive
mental fabrication while completion stage means resting in the unfabricated
nature of mind. See individually.
| Development stage (bskyed
rim, utpattikrama). One of the two aspects of Vajrayana practice.
The mental creation of pure images in order to purify habitual tendencies.
The essence of the development stage is ‘pure perception’
or ‘sacred outlook’ which means to perceive sights,
sounds and thoughts as deity, mantra and wisdom.
| Dhana Sanskrita (nor gyi
legs sbyar). One of the Eight Vidyadharas, the receiver of the transmissions
of Liberating Sorcery of Mother Deities, Mamo Botong. Not much
is available about his life besides him being born in the Thogar
area of Uddiyana.
| Dharma protector (chos
skyong). Nonhumans who vow to protect and guard the teachings of
the Buddha and its followers. Dharma protectors can be either ‘mundane’
i.e. virtuous samsaric beings or ‘wisdom Dharma protectors’
who are emanations of buddhas or bodhisattvas.
| Dharmadhatu (chos kyi
dbyings). The ‘realm of phenomena;’ the suchness in
which emptiness and dependent origination are inseparable. The nature
of mind and phenomena which lies beyond arising, dwelling and ceasing.
| Dharmadhatu Palace of Akanishtha
(‘og min chos kyi dbyings kyi pho brang). Figurative
expression for the abode of Vajradhara or Samantabhadra, the dharmakaya
buddha. Akanishtha means ‘highest’ or ‘unsurpassed.’
| Dharmakaya (chos sku).
The first of the three kayas, which is devoid of constructs, like
space. The ‘body’ of enlightened qualities. Should be
understood individually according to ground, path and fruition.
| Dharmata (chos nyid).
The innate nature of phenomena and mind.
| Dharmic (chos kyi). Of
or pertaining to the Dharma; religious or pious.
| Dilgo Khyentse (ldil mgo
mkhyen brtse). See His Holiness Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche.
| Divine Valley Water (gshong
pa’i lha chu). ‘Shongpey Lhachu.’ Even today a
place with clear and sweet water, situated near Lhasa in Central
| Dorje Drakpo Tsal (rdo
rje drag po rtsal). ‘Powerful Vajra Wrath.’ A wrathful
form of Guru Rinpoche.
| Dorje Drollo (rdo
rje drod lo). A wrathful form of Padmasambhava; especially for subduing
evil forces and concealing termas for the welfare of future generations.
| Dosher Trelchung (mdo
gzher sprel chung). A minister of King Trisong Deutsen; also spelled
Dershey Trelchung (sder bzhed sprel chung).
| Drenpa Namkha (dran pa
nam mkha’). Tibetan translator and disciple of Padmasambhava.
At first he was an influential Bonpo priest, but later he studied
with Padmasambhava and also learned translation. Due to his miraculous
power, he is said to have tamed a wild yak simply by a threatening
gesture. He offered numerous Bonpo teachings to Padmasambhava
who then concealed them as a terma treasure.
| Drey (bre). Tibetan volume
measure equivalent of about one liter or two pints. One drey of
gold would weigh about 13 kilos.
| Dzogchen (rdzogs pa chen
po, Skt. mahasandhi). Also known as Great Perfection and Ati Yoga.
The highest teachings of the Nyingma School of the Early Translations.
In this world the most well known human lineage masters are: Garab Dorje, Manjushrimitra, Shri Singha, Jnanasutra, Vimalamitra, Padmasambhava
and Vairotsana. Dzogchen has two chief aspects: the lineage of scriptures
and the lineage of teachings (dpe brgyud dang bka’ brgyud).
The scriptures are contained in the tantras of the Three Sections
of Dzogchen: Mind Section, Space Section and Instruction Section.
The first two were brought to Tibet chiefly by Vairotsana while
the Instruction Section was mainly transmitted by Vimalamitra and
Padmasambhava. In addition, numerous Dzogchen termas were concealed
by these masters and revealed through the following centuries. The
lineage of teachings is embodied in the oral instructions one receives
personally from a qualified master and holder of the Dzogchen lineage.
The Tibetan historian Guru Tashi Tobgyal elaborates in his Ocean
of Wondrous Sayings about Padmasambhava’s specific lineage
of Dzogchen in the following way: “The great master is of
the same nature as the infinite number of buddhas of the three kayas
and does therefore not depend upon the concept of linear transmission.
He is indivisible from the buddhas and the pure realms of the three
kayas. However, in accordance with how other people perceive, Padmasambhava
is not only the master of the numberless tantras of Vajrayana but
possesses a unique short lineage of mastery over the profound topics
of Nyingtig, the Luminous Great Perfection of the definitive meaning,
entrusted to him by the three masters Garab Dorje, Manjushrimitra
and Shri Singha. In particular, Padmasambhava acted upon a prophesy
from Vajra Varahi and then received detailed teachings from Shri
| Early and Later Translation of the
Great Perfection (rdzogs pa chen po snga ‘gyur phyi ‘gyur).
This phrase refers to the Eighteen Major Scriptures of the Mind
Section, a set of Dzogchen tantras taught by Shri Singha to Vairotsana
and Lekdrub of Tsang, as listed in chapter Fourteen. Five of them
were translated by Vairotsana before his exile to Tsawarong while
the remaining thirteen were later translated by Vimalamitra and
Yudra Nyingpo, hence the name.
| Early Translations (snga
‘gyur). A synonym for the Old School, the Nyingma tradition.
| Eight charnel grounds
(dur khrod brgyad): 1) Cool Grove, Sitavana (bsil ba tshal), in
the east. 2) Perfected in Body (sku la rdzogs) to the south. 3)
Lotus Mound (pad ma brtsegs) to the west. 4) Lanka Mound (lan ka
brtsegs) to the north. 5) Spontaneously Accomplished Mound (lhun
grub brtsegs) to the south-east. 6) Display of Great Secret (gsang
chen rol pa) to the south-west. 7) Pervasive Great Joy (he chen
brdal ba) to the north-west. 8) World Mound (‘jig rten brtsegs)
to the north-east. There are also numerous other lists of charnel
| Eight classes of gods and demons
(lha srin sde brgyad). There are various descriptions but in the
sutras the most general is: devas, nagas, yakshas, gandharvas, asuras,
garudas, kinnaras, and mahoragas. All of them were able to receive
and practice the teachings of the Buddha. These eight classes can
also refer to various types of mundane spirits who can cause either
help or harm, but remain invisible to normal human beings: ging,
mara, tsen, yaksha, raksha, mamo, rahula, and naga. On a subtle
level, they are regarded as the impure manifestation of the eight
types of consciousness.
| Eight disciples (rje ‘bangs
brgyad). The eight chief recipients in Tibet of the Eight Sadhana Teachings transmitted by Guru Rinpoche: King Trisong Deutsen, Namkhai Nyingpo, Sangye Yeshe, Gyalwa Cho-yang, Yeshe Tsogyal, Palgyi Yeshe,
Palgyi Senge, and Vairotsana.
| Eight Sadhana
Teachings (sgrub pa bka’ brgyad). Eight chief
yidam deities of Mahayoga and their corresponding tantras and sadhanas:
Manjushri Body, Lotus Speech, Vishuddha Mind, Nectar Quality, Kilaya
Activity, Liberating Sorcery of Mother Deities, Maledictory Fierce
Mantra, and Mundane Worship. See also under Assemblage
of Sugatas and Sadhana Section.
| Eight Vidyadharas (rig
‘dzin brgyad). Manjushrimitra, Nagarjuna, Hungkara, Vimalamitra,
Prabhahasti, Dhana Sanskrita, Shintam Garbha, and Guhyachandra.
| Eightfold Magical Net
(sgyu ‘phrul brgyad pa). A Mahayoga scripture in eight chapters.
Vol. PHA of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Eighteen Inner Tantras of Secret
Mantra (gsang sngags nang gi rgyud sde bco brgyad). In
the context of Chapter 12, the term refers chiefly to the tantras
of Mahayoga. They were translated into Tibetan by Padmasambhava
and Chokro Lui Gyaltsen. See also Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras.
| Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras
(ma ha yo ga’i rgyud sde bco brgyad). Listed in Chapter Twelve.
An alternative list is given by Shechen Gyaltsab in his historical
work entitled The Pond of White Lotus Flowers and in Guru Tashi
Tobgyal’s Ocean of Wondrous Sayings to Delight the Learned
Ones: 1-5) Five Basic Root Tantras of Body, Speech, Mind, Quality
and Activity: Sarvabuddha Samayoga, Assemblage of Secrets, Glorious
Supreme Primal Tantra, and Activity Garland. 6-10) Five Display
Tantras functioning as utilization of sadhana practice: Heruka Display
Tantra, Supreme Steed Display Tantra, Compassion Display Tantra,
Nectar Display Tantra, and Twelvefold Kilaya Tantra. 11-15) Five
Tantras Functioning as Subsidiaries to Conduct: Mountain Pile, Awesome
Wisdom Lightning, Arrangement of Samaya, One-pointed Samadhi, and
the Rampant Elephant Tantra. 16-17) Two subsequent tantras of amending
incompleteness: Magical Net of Vairochana and Skillful Lasso. 18)
The one outstanding tantra that epitomizes them all: The Essence
of Secrets, the Tantra of the Magical Net of Vajrasattva, also known
| Eighteen Major Scriptures
(lung chen po bco brgyad). Eighteen Dzogchen tantras of the Mind
Section taught by Shri Singha to Vairotsana and Lekdrub. Listed
in chapter 14. Found in Vol. KA of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Eighteen Marvels of Mind in Fifty
Chapters (sems rmad du byung ba bco brgyad kyi le’u
lnga bcu). Several tantras in the first three volumes of the Nyingma Gyubum bear a resembling name although none of them have 50
chapters. A writing mistake seems to have appeared since The Bright
Crystal Mirror by Yeshe Tsogyal says instead: “Five first
parts of the Eighteen Marvels of Mind” (sems smad bco brgyad
kyi stod kyi lnga), referring to the first five tantras translated
| Eightfold Volume (bam
po brgyad pa). Tantra belonging to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga;
focused on Nectar Quality. Tantra with similar title is found in
Vol. LA of the Nyingma Gyubum. Possibly identical with the
Scripture in Eight Chapters.
| Emaho (e ma ho). An exclamation
of wonder and amazement.
| Embodiment of Realization
(dgongs ‘dus). An Anu Yoga scripture of major importance.
Abbreviation of The Scripture of the Embodiment of the Realization
of All Buddhas (sangs rgyas thams cad kyi dgongs pa ‘dus pa’i
| Empowerment (dbang). The
conferring of power or authorization to practice the Vajrayana teachings,
the indispensable entrance door to tantric practice. Empowerment
gives control over one’s innate vajra body, vajra speech and
vajra mind and the authority to regard forms as deity, sounds as
mantra and thoughts as wisdom. See also ‘four empowerments.’
| Empowerment of Direct Anointment
(rgyal thabs spyi blugs kyi dbang). The act of bestowing
the four empowerments condensed into one, transferring the totality
of blessings, just as a king would empower the crown prince to wield
| Empowerment of the Expression of
Awareness (rig pa’i rtsal gyi dbang). The empowerment
for practicing Dzogchen. Sometimes it also refers to stage of realization
achieved through Dzogchen practice.
| Empty and luminous dharmata
(chos nyid stong gsal). A synonym for buddha nature, the enlightened
essence within all beings.
| Epagsha of Drugu (gru
gu e pag sha). One of the first Tibetans to take ordination; received
transmission from Hungkara in India together with Namkhai Nyingpo.
| Equal taste (ro mnyam).
A high level of realization; perceiving the empty nature of all
| Essence of Secrets (gsang
ba’i snying po, guhyagarbha). The widely renowned tantra of
the Early Translations which, according to Jamgon Kongtrul,
is the chief of the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras, exalted above them
all like the banner of victory. The first text in Vol. PHA of the
Nyingma Gyubum. A great number of commentaries on this tantra
is found in the Nyingma Kama collection.
| Essence-extract (bcud
len, Skt. rasayana). A practice which sustains the living body with
the essences of medicinal plants, minerals, and elemental energy
in order to purify the body, heighten concentration and avoid the
diversions of seeking ordinary material food.
| Ever-Excellent Lady (kun
tu bzang mo, Skt. Samantabhadri). ‘The All-good,’ the
mother of all the buddhas of the three times; the female counterpart
of the dharmakaya buddha Samantabhadra. She symbolizes emptiness
| Expedient and definitive meaning
(drang don dang nges don). The expedient meaning refers
to conventional teachings on karma, path and result designed to
lead the practitioner to the ‘definitive meaning,’ the
insight into emptiness, suchness, and buddha nature.
| Eye of Dharma (chos kyi
mig). The faculty that sees reality without obscurations.
| Feast Offering (tshogs
kyi ‘khor lo, Skt. ganachakra). A feast assembly performed
by Vajrayana practitioners to accumulate merit and purify the sacred
| Fierce mantras (drag sngags).
A certain type of mantras belonging to wrathful deities. They are
used to dispel demonic forces that obstruct the continuation of
the Buddhadharma or the welfare of sentient beings.
| Fifty-eight herukas (khrag
‘thung lnga bcu nga brgyad). The five male and female herukas,
eight yoginis, eight tramen goddesses, four female gatekeepers,
and twenty-eight shvaris.
| Final Subsequent Mantra Tantra
(phyi ma’i phyi ma sngags kyi rgyud). Tantra belonging to
the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga. Vol. OM of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Five Early and Thirteen Later Translations
of the Great Perfection (rdzogs pa chen po snga ‘gyur
lnga dang phyi ‘gyur bcu gsum). Listed in chapter fourteen.
Same as ‘Eighteen Major Scriptures’ and ‘Early
and later translation of the Great Perfection.’ In other history
books they are also known as the Eighteen Mothers and Children of
the Mind Section (sems sde ma bu bco brgyad).
| Five Families (rigs lnga).
Name of a sadhana text composed by Guru Rinpoche focused on Mahayoga
| Five families (rigs lnga).
The five buddha families: tathagata, vajra, ratna, padma and karma.
They represent five aspects of innate qualities of the tathagatagarbha,
our enlightened essence.
| Five families of sugatas
(bde gshegs rigs lnga). The five families or aspects of victorious
ones; Vairochana, Akshobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha, and Amoghasiddhi.
| Five poisonous kleshas
(nyon mongs pa dug lnga). See ‘five poisons.’
| Five poisons (dug lnga).
Desire, anger, delusion, pride, and envy.
| Five sciences (rig pa’i
gnas lnga). Grammar, dialectics, healing, arts and crafts, and religious
| Five wisdoms (ye shes
lnga). The dharmadhatu wisdom, mirror-like wisdom, wisdom of equality,
discriminating wisdom, and all-accomplishing wisdom. They represent
five distinctive functions of the tathagatagarbha, our enlightened
| Five-hundred year period
(dus lnga brgya). Periods of each five hundred years. The Buddhadharma
is said to last ten such periods.
| Forty-two peaceful deities
(zhi ba bzhi bcu zhe gnyis). Samantabhadra and Samantabhadri, the
five male and female buddhas, the eight male and female bodhisattvas,
the six munis, and the four male and female gate keepers.
| Four activities (las bzhi).
Pacifying, increasing, magnetizing, and subjugating.
| Four aspects of approach and accomplishment
(bsnyen sgrub kyi yan lag bzhi). Approach, full approach,
accomplishment, and great accomplishment. Four important aspects
of Vajrayana practice, especially the recitation stage of yidam
practice. These four aspects, however, can apply to any level of
meaning within the tantras. Their traditional analogy is to invite
the ruler of a country, to present him with gifts and make a specific
request, to obtain his permission to carry out one’s aim,
and to use one’s authority to accomplish the welfare of self
and others. In the context of recitation practice, ‘approach’
is to visualize the yidam deity with the mantra in its heart center,
‘full approach’ is the spinning garland of mantra syllables
emanating light rays making offerings to all the buddhas in the
ten directions, ‘accomplishment’ is to receive their
blessings which purify all one’s obscurations, and ‘great
accomplishment’ is to transform the world into the mandala
of a pure realm, the beings into male and female deities, sounds
into mantra and all thoughts and emotions into a pure display of
| Four continents (gling
bzhi). The four continents surrounding Mount Sumeru: Superior Body,
Jambu Continent, Cow Utilizing, and Unpleasant Sound.
| Four districts of Tibet
(bod ru bzhi). Four areas in Central Tibet flanking the rivers Kyichu
| Four empowerments (dbang
bzhi). The vase, secret, wisdom-knowledge and precious word empowerments.
Padmasambhava says in the Lamrim
Yeshe Nyingpo: “The vase empowerment which
purifies the body and the nadis is the seed of the vajra body and
nirmanakaya. The secret empowerment which purifies the speech and
the pranas is the seed of the vajra speech and sambhogakaya. The
phonya empowerment which purifies the mind and the essences is the
seed of the vajra mind and dharmakaya. The ultimate empowerment
which purifies the habitual patterns of the all-ground is the seed
of the vajra wisdom and svabhavikakaya.”
| Four Great Rivers of Transmissions
(bka’ babs kyi chu bo chen po bzhi). The rivers
of empowerment of yidam, tantric scriptures, spiritual friend, and
of the expression of awareness. These four transmissions originate
from, respectively, Garab Dorje, King Jah, Buddhaguhya and Shri Singha.
| Four immeasurables (tshad
med bzhi). Compassion, love, joy and impartiality. Also called the
‘four abodes of Brahma’ because their cultivation causes
rebirth as the king of the gods in the Realm of Form within samsaric
existence. When embraced by the attitude of bodhichitta, the wish
to attain enlightenment for the welfare of others, their cultivation
causes the attainment of unexcelled buddhahood.
| Four means of magnetizing
(bsdu ba’i dngos po bzhi). Being generous, uttering kind words,
giving appropriate teachings, and keeping consistency between words
| Four results of spiritual practice
(dge sbyor gyi ‘bras bu bzhi). See ‘shravaka.’
| Four Vidyadhara Levels
(rig ‘dzin rnam pa bzhi’i go ‘phang). The four
stages of attainment of knowledge-holders, masters of the four stages
of the tantric path of Mahayoga. The four vidyadhara levels are
the Maturation, Longevity (Life Mastery), Mahamudra, and Spontaneous
Perfection. See under each individually.
| Fruition (‘bras
bu). The end of the path. Usually the state of complete and perfect
buddhahood. Can also refer to one of the three levels of enlightenment
of a shravaka, pratyekabuddha or bodhisattva. See also ‘view,
meditation, action and fruition.’
| Fruition of nonreturn
(phyir mi ldog pa’i ‘bras bu). Liberation from samsara
or the omniscient state of buddhahood.
| Fulfillment ritual (bskang
ba, bskang chog). A practice to purify outer, inner and secret or
innermost breaches and violations of a practitioner’s Hinayana
precepts, Mahayana vows, or Vajrayana commitments.
| Garab Dorje (dga’
rab rdo rje, Skt. Surativajra, Prahevajra, Pramoda Vajra). The incarnation
of Semlhag Chen, a god who earlier had been empowered by the buddhas.
Immaculately conceived, his mother was a nun, the daughter of King
Uparaja (Dhahenatalo or Indrabhuti) of Uddiyana. Garab Dorje received
all the tantras, scriptures and oral instructions of Dzogchen from
Vajrasattva and Vajrapani in person and became the first human vidyadhara
in the Dzogchen lineage. Having reached the state of complete enlightenment
through the effortless Great Perfection, Garab Dorje transmitted
the teachings to his retinue of exceptional beings. Manjushrimitra
is regarded as his chief disciple. Padmasambhava is also known to
have received the transmission of the Dzogchen tantras directly
from Garab Dorje’s wisdom form.
| Garuda (mkha’ lding).
The mythological bird, able to travel from one end of the universe
to the other with a single movement of its wings. It is also known
to hatch from the egg fully developed and ready to soar through
| Gate-keeping pandita (sgo
bsrung ba’i pan di ta). At the major monastic institutions
in ancient India, it was the custom to nominate competent scholars
to the position of defending the view of Buddhism through debate,
one at each of the gates in the four directions of the monastery.
| Glorious Blazing Wrathful Goddess
Tantra (dpal ‘bar ba khro mo’i rgyud). A Mahayoga
scripture. A tantra of this name is found in PA of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Glorious Copper Colored Mountain
(zangs mdog dpal ri). The terrestrial pure land of Guru
Rinpoche situated on the subcontinent Chamara to the south-east
of the Jambu Continent. Chamara is the central of a configuration
of nine islands inhabited by savage rakshas. In the middle of Chamara
rises the majestic red colored mountain into the skies. On its summit
lies the magical palace Lotus Light, manifested from the natural
expression of primordial wakefulness. Here resides Padmasambhava
in an indestructible bodily form transcending birth and death for
as long as samsara continues and through which he incessantly brings
benefit to beings through magical emanations of his body, speech
| Glorious Supreme Primal Tantra
(dpal mchog dang po’i rgyud, Skt. Shri Paramadi Tantra). One
the Four Major Sections of Yoga Tantra. A tantra of the same title
is sometimes listed among the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras as the tantra
of enlightened qualities.
| Gola (go la, so chang).
A drink of sugar cane or grain from Nepal.
| Gongpo spirits (‘gong
po). A type of evil spirit symbolizing ego-clinging, sometimes counted
among the ‘eight classes of gods and demons.’ When subdued
by a great master, they can also act as guardians of the Buddhadharma.
| Good Aeon (bskal pa bzang
po, Skt. bhadrakalpa). This present aeon in which one thousand buddhas
will appear, lasting no less than 160 million years.
| Great Compassionate One
(thugs rje chen po). The bodhisattva of boundless compassion also
known as Avalokiteshvara.
| Great Garuda View Scripture
(lta ba khyung chen gyi lung). A tantra with similar title is found
in Vol. KA of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Great Glacier Lady of Invincible
Turquoise Mist (gangs kyi yum chen rdo rje g.yu bun ma).
A protector of the Dharma teachings bound under oath by Padmasambhava.
She was formerly a Bonpo warrior spirit (dgra lha).
| Great Glorious One (dpal
chen). Identical with Vishuddha Heruka in the case of Namkhai Nyingpo’s
| Great Perfection (rdzogs
pa chen po, Skt. mahasandhi). The third of the Three Inner Tantras
of the Nyingma School. The Great Perfection is the ultimate of all
the 84,000 profound and extensive sections of the Dharma, the realization
of Buddha Samantabhadra, exactly as it is. See also ‘Dzogchen’
or ‘Ati Yoga.’
| Guru Rinpoche (gu ru rin
po che) ‘Precious Master.’ The lotus born tantric master
who established Vajrayana Buddhism in Tibet in the 9th century at
the invitation of King Trisong Deutsen. He manifested the attainment
of the four vidyadhara levels. He hid innumerable Dharma treasures
throughout Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan to be revealed by destined disciples
in the centuries to come. Guru Rinpoche resides on the summit of
the Copper Colored Mountain on the southeastern continent. He is
also known under the names Padmasambhava and Padmakara.
| Guru, Yidam and Dakini
(bla ma yi dam mkha’ ‘gro). The three roots of Vajrayana
practice: the guru is the root of blessings, the yidam is the root
of accomplishments, and the dakini is the root of activities.
| Gyalmo Tsawarong (rgyal
mo tsha ba rong). A district between eastern Tibet and China.
| Gyalpo spirits (rgyal
po). A type of mischievous spirit, sometimes counted among the ‘eight
classes of gods and demons.’ When subdued by a great master,
they can also act as guardians of the Buddhadharma.
| Gyalto Rami (rgyal to
ra mi). Minister of King Trisong Deutsen; also spelled Gyatong Rakyim
(rgya stong ra khyim).
| Gyalwa Cho-yang (rgyal
ba mchog dbyangs). A close disciple of Guru Rinpoche who attained
accomplishment through the practice of Hayagriva and later was incarnated
as the Karmapas. Born in clan of Nganlam in the Phen Valley, he
took ordination from Khenpo Bodhisattva in the first group of seven
Tibetan monks. It is said that he kept his vows with utmost purity.
Having received the transmission of Hayagriva from Padmasambhava,
he practiced in solitude and reached the level of a vidyadhara.
| Gyalwa Cho-yang of Nganlam
(ngan lam rgyal ba mchog dbyangs). See above.
| Gyalwey Lodro of Drey
(‘bre rgyal ba’i blo gros). One of the first Tibetans
to take ordination. He received transmission from Hungkara in India.
At first he was a trusted attendant of Trisong Deutsen by the name
Gonpo and later, at the time of taking ordination, he was given
the name Gyalwey Lodro, Victorious Intelligence. He became
erudite in translation and attained accomplishment after receiving
transmission from Hungkara. It is said that he visited the land
of Yama, the Lord of the Dead, and saved his mother from the hell
realms. After receiving teachings from Padmasambhava, he showed
the feat of transforming a zombie into gold. Some of this gold has
been revealed in termas later on. He achieved the vidyadhara level
of longevity and is reputed to have lived until the time of Rongzom
Pandita Chokyi Sangpo (rong zom chos kyi bzang po) 1012-1088,
to whom he gave teachings.
| Gyatsa Lhanang (rgya tsha
lha snang). A minister of King Trisong Deutsen; also spelled Gyaltsa
Lhanang (rgyal tsha lha snang).
| Hashang (hva shang). See
‘Chinese teacher Hashang.’ In this book, one of the
construction masters of Samye was a Chinese known as Hashang Mahayana
and a Chinese doctor by the name Hashang Tetsa also occur. Finally,
Hashang is mentioned as one of the countries from the language of
which the Dharma was translated.
| Haughty spirit (dregs
pa). A certain type of malevolent spirit.
| Hayagriva (rta mgrin).
Tantric deity always shown with a horse’s head within his
flaming hair; wrathful aspect of Buddha Amitabha. Here identical
with Padma Heruka, Lotus Speech, among the Eight Sadhana Teachings.
| Hearing Lineage (nyan
brgyud). The lineage of oral teachings from master to disciple as
distinct from scriptural lineage of textual transmission. The Hearing
Lineage emphasizes the key points of oral instruction rather than
elaborate philosophical learning.
| Hepori (has po ri). A
big hill at Samye. One of four sacred mountains in Central Tibet.
| Heretic (mu stegs pa).
See under ‘non-Buddhist.’
| Heruka (khrag ‘thung).
Literally, ‘blood drinker.’ A wrathful deity; drinker
of the blood of ego-clinging.
| Heruka Galpo (he ru ka
gal po). One of the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras; focused on Vishuddha
Mind. Both the Galpo and the Galpoche tantras are found in Vol.
RA of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| His Holiness Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche
(skyabs rje ldil mgo mkhyen brtse rin po che). (b. 1910).
Regarded by followers of all four schools as one of the foremost
living masters of Tibetan Buddhism. Among his other names are Rabsel
Dawa and Tashi Paljor, and his terton names Osel Trulpey Dorje and
Pema Do-ngak Lingpa.
| Hundred and Eight Sadhanas of Guru
Vidyadhara (bla ma rig ‘dzin gyi sgrub thabs brgya
rtsa brgyad). One of the Nine Sadhana Sections of Mahayoga.
| Hundred peaceful and wrathful divinities
(zhi khro’i lha brgya). The 42 peaceful and 58 wrathful
deities. See individually.
| Hundred Thousand Tika Scripture
(‘bum gyi ti ka’i rgyud lung). One of the
Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras. Found in Vol. OM of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Hungkara (Skt.). One of
the Eight Vidyadharas; receiver of the tantras of Vishuddha Mind
including Heruka Galpo. Having taken birth in either India or Nepal,
at first he was erudite in a non-Buddhist religion and gained some
attainments but later awakened to faith in the Buddhist teachings,
took ordination from Buddhajnana at Nalanda and studied both the
outer and inner aspects of Secret Mantra. His name derives from
the chief deity of the mandala into which he was first initiated.
At some point he took an outcaste girl as consort and practiced
for six months the four aspects of approach and accomplishment.
Through that practice he had a vision of the entire mandala of Vajra
Heruka and reached the attainment of the supreme accomplishment
of mahamudra. He wrote the Golden Garland of Rulu, the Vishuddha
Accomplishment as well as other treatises and benefited beings with
tremendous activity. Finally, he departed to the realm of Buddha
Akshobhya in his very body. He was associated with Rolang Sukhasiddhi,
Kukuraja and Buddhaguhya, while his lineage was transmitted to Padmasambhava
and Namkhai Nyingpo who spread his teachings in India.
| Indrabodhi (rgyal po indra
bodhi). The king of the country of Uddiyana during the appearance
of Padmasambhava in this world. Sometimes his name is spelled Indrabhuti.
| Inner Tantras of Secret Mantra
(gsang sngags nang gi rgyud sde). Usually this term refers to the
Three Inner Tantras of Mahayoga, Anu Yoga and Ati Yoga, but in the
specific context of the translation of the tantras in chapter twelve
only Mahayoga and Anu Yoga are included. The Ati Yoga tantras are
listed in chapter fourteen.
| Instruction Section (man
ngag sde). The third of the Three Sections of Dzogchen, as arranged
by Manjushrimitra. In Tibet three lineages are represented: through
Padmasambhava and Vairotsana who both received transmission from
Shri Singha, and through Vimalamitra who received transmission partly
from Shri Singha and partly from Jnanasutra. The two former lineages
were continued only as termas while Vimalamitra’s was passed
on both as terma and as oral transmission. In the following millennium,
innumerable termas have been revealed containing the precious instructions
of these three great masters. The most important of these terma
treasures are included in the Rinchen
Terdzo, a collection
of termas by Jamgon Kongtrul covering the Three Inner
| Jambu Continent (‘dzam
bu gling). Our known world. The southern of the four continents,
so called because it is adorned with the Jambubriksha
(rose apple) tree.
| Jarung Khashor (bya rung
kha shor). ‘Permission Once Given (Cannot be Taken Back)’.
The great white stupa at Boudhanath in the Kathmandu Valley.
| Jnana Kumara of Nyag (gnyag
jna na ku ma ra / ye shes gzhon nu). Jnana Kumara means ‘Youthful
Wakefulness.’ Early Tibetan monk and expert translator who
received the Four Great Rivers of Transmission from Padmasambhava,
Vimalamitra, Vairotsana and Yudra Nyingpo. In particular, he worked
closely with Vimalamitra in translating tantras of Mahayoga and
Ati Yoga. He is also known as Nyag Lotsawa and under his secret
initiation name Drimey Dashar, Flawless Moonlight. In unison with
Trisong Deutsen, his initiation flower fell on Chemchok Heruka.
Subsequently, he received the transmission of Nectar Medicine from
Padmasambhava. He practiced in the Crystal Cave of Yarlung were
he drew water from solid rock. It is said the water still flows
today. Among his later incarnations is Dazang Rinpoche, a contemporary
of Jamgon Kongtrul the First in the nineteenth century.
| Kailash (ti se). Sacred
mountain in western Tibet; also known as Mount Tisey.
| Kalachakra (dus kyi ‘khor
lo). ‘Wheel of Time.’ A tantra and a Vajrayana system
taught by Buddha Shakyamuni himself, showing the interrelationship
between the phenomenal world, the physical body and the mind.
| Kamalashila (Skt.) Disciple
of Shantarakshita who represented the Indian position in a decisive
eighth century debate at Samye.
| Kathang (bka’ thang).
‘Chronicles.’ Usually refers to the biographies of Padmasambhava
concealed as terma treasures.
| Kawa Paltsek (ska ba dpal
brtsegs). Direct disciple of both Padmasambhava and Shantarakshita;
important contributor to the translation of the Tibetan Tripitaka
and the Nyingma Gyubum. Born in Phen Valley, he became an eminent
translator in accordance with a prophesy by Padmasambhava and took
ordination from Khenpo Bodhisattva among the seven first Tibetan
monks. He received Vajrayana teachings from the great master Padma
and attained unimpeded clairvoyance.
| Khamsum Copper Temple
(khams gsum zangs khang gling). A temple at Samye built by Lady
Margyen of Tsepang, a queen of king Trisong Deutsen.
| Khandro Yeshe Tsogyal
(mkha’ ‘gro ye shes mtsho rgyal). See Yeshe Tsogyal.
| Kharchu at Lhodrak (lho
brag mkhar chu). The retreat place of Padmasambhava’s mind.
It is situated one day’s walk from Lord Marpa’s house
| Khatvanga (Skt.). A staff
carried by tantric adepts and representing the secret consort and
transformation of the three poisons.
| Khenpo Bodhisattva (mkhan
po bo dhi satva). The Indian master who ordained the first monks
in Tibet. See Shantarakshita.
| Kilaya (phur ba). 1) Sacred
dagger used in tantric rituals. 2) Same as Kilaya Activity.
| Kilaya Activity (phur
pa phrin las). The heruka of the karma family or the tantric teachings
connected to this deity among the Eight Sadhana Teachings.
| King Jah (rgyal po dzah).
The first human recipient of the Mahayoga teachings and an important
figure head in the transmission of Anu Yoga.
| King Trisong Deutsen (rgyal
po khri srong lde’u btsan). See Trisong Deutsen.
| King Yama (gshin rje rgyal
po). The Lord of Death. The terrible judge of the dead. Also a personification
of impermanence, the unfailing law of karma and one’s inevitable
| Klesha (nyon mongs pa).
‘Disturbing emotion.’ Usually the five poisons known
as desire, anger, delusion, pride and envy.
| Kriya Yoga (bya ba’i
rnal ‘byor). The first of the three outer tantras which places
emphasis on cleanliness and pure conduct. The scriptures of Kriya
Tantra appeared first in Varanasi.
| Kungamo (kun dga’
mo). The wisdom dakini who conferred empowerment upon Guru Rinpoche.
She is also known as the dakini Leykyi Wangmo, Nyida Ngodrub
or as Guhyajnana, the chief of wisdom dakinis.
| Kyeho (kye ho). Exclamation
of distress or invocation.
| Lady Kharchen (mkhar chen
bza’). See Yeshe Tsogyal.
| Lady Margyen of Tsepang
(tshe spang bza’ dmar rgyan). One of the queens of king Trisong
Deutsen. Reputed to have been a major troublemaker.
| Lady Tsogyal of Kharchen
(mkhar chen bza’ mtsho rgyal). See Yeshe Tsogyal.
| Langdarma (glang dar ma).
Brother of the great Dharma king Ralpachen and the persecutor of
the Sangha in central Tibet during a five year reign. During his
brief reign, he almost succeeded in eradicating Buddhism in Tibet.
| Learning, reflection and meditation
(thos bsam sgom gsum). Learning means receiving oral teachings
and studying scriptures in order to clear away ignorance and wrong
views. ‘Reflection’ is to eradicate uncertainty and
misunderstanding through carefully thinking over the subject. ‘Meditation’
means to gain direct insight through applying the teachings in one’s
| Lekdrub (legs grub). See
Lekdrub of Tsang.
| Lekdrub of Tsang (gtsang
legs grub). The companion of Vairotsana on his journey to India.
Lekdrub received half of the transmission of Dzogchen from Shri Singha, departed early and died on his way back to Tibet. He was
reborn as Yudra Nyingpo.
| Level (sa). The levels
or stages a bodhisattva traverses on the journey to complete enlightenment.
| Leykyi Wangmo (las kyi dbang
mo, Skt. Karma Indranila, Karmeshvari). The dakini who transmitted
the Eight Sadhana Teachings to the
Eight Vidyadharas and later the Assemblage
of Sugatas to Padmasambhava. See also ‘Kungamo.’
| Lhalung Palgyi Dorje (lha
lung dpal gyi rdo rje). Born in Upper Drom, he was first a border
guard but developed renunciation and received ordination from Vimalamitra,
together with his two brothers. He received the bodhisattva vow
from Padmasambhava as well as empowerment and oral instructions
in Vajrayana. He practiced meditation in White Gorge of Tsib and
at Yerpa where he reached the accomplishment of being able to traverse
freely through solid rock. Years later he assassinated the evil
| Lhasa (lha sa). ‘Abode
of the Gods.’ The capital of Tibet and location of the famous
Jokhang temple founded by King Songtsen
| Liberating Sorcery of Mother Deities
(ma mo rbod gtong). One of the Eight Sadhana Teachings
| Life-wheel, hail and spells
(srog ser gtad gsum). Three aspects of protective tantric rituals.
| Loden Chogsey (blo ldan
mchog sred). One of the eight manifestations of Padmasambhava.
| Lord Nyang (mnga’ bdag
nyang / myang). See Nyang
Ral Nyima Oser.
| Lord of Great Compassion
(jo bo thugs rje chen po). The great bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara.
| Lord of Secrets (gsang
ba’i bdag po). The great bodhisattva Vajrapani who is regarded
as the chief compiler of the Vajrayana teachings.
| Lord Ralpachen of Nyang (mnga’
bdag nyang ral pa can). See Nyang
Ral Nyima Oser.
| Lords of the Three Families
(rigs gsum mgon po). The three bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara, Manjushri
| Lotsawa (lo tsa ba, Skt.
locchava). Tibetan translators of the canonical texts who usually
worked closely with Indian panditas. The title literally means ‘bilingual’
(skad gnyis smra ba) or the ‘eyes of the world’ (‘jig
| Lotsawa Vairotsana (lo
tsa ba vai ro tsa na). See Vairotsana.
| Lotus King (pad ma rgyal
po). Same as Guru Rinpoche. One of his eight manifestations.
| Lotus Speech (pad ma gsung).
The heruka of the padma family or the tantric teachings connected
to this deity among the Eight Sadhana Teachings.
| Lower realms (ngan song).
The three abodes of hell beings, hungry ghosts and animals.
| Lui Gyaltsen (klu yi rgyal
mtshan). See Chokro Lui Gyaltsen.
| Luminosity (‘od
gsal). A key term in Vajrayana philosophy signifying a departure
from Mahayana’s over-emphasis on emptiness which can lead
to nihilism. According to Mipham Rinpoche, ‘luminosity’
means ‘free from the darkness of unknowing and endowed with
the ability to cognize.’
| Luminous Vajra Essence
(‘od gsal rdo rje snying po). A synonym for the Great Perfection,
| Machen Pomra (rma chen
spom ra). A powerful local spirit from the area of Kham, the chief
of twenty-one major local divinities.
| Magical Net (sgyu ‘phrul).
A collective term for the manifestations of enlightenment to tame
whoever needs in whichever way is necessary. In this book the term
refers to a collection of tantric scriptures belonging chiefly to
| Magical Net of Manjushri
(‘jam dpal sgyu ‘phrul). A Mahayoga scripture. Vol.
BA of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Magical Net of the Goddess
(lha mo sgyu ‘phrul). A Mahayoga scripture. Vol. BA of the
| Magical Net of Vairochana
(rnam snang sgyu ‘phrul drva ba). A Mahayoga scripture which
functions as subsidiary support for engaging in yogic activities
connected to the mandala. See Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras.
| Mahabodhi Temple (byang
chub chen po). The enormous shrine in front of the bodhi tree at
Vajra Seat, Bodhgaya.
| Mahamudra (phyag chen,
phyag rgya chen po). In the context of this book, ‘mahamudra’
refers to the ‘supreme attainment of mahamudra’ which
is synonymous with complete enlightenment or to the ‘vidyadhara
level of mahamudra,’ the third of the four vidyadhara levels.
| Mahamudra level of the path of cultivation
(sgom lam phyag rgya chen po). Same as the vidyadhara
level of mahamudra.
| Mahayana (theg pa chen
po). ‘Greater vehicle.’ When using the term ‘greater
and lesser vehicles,’ Mahayana and Hinayana,’ Mahayana
includes the tantric vehicles while Hinayana is comprised of the
teachings for shravakas and pratyekabuddhas. The connotation of
‘greater’ or ‘lesser’ refers to the scope
of aspiration, the methods applied and the depth of insight.
| Mahayoga (rnal ‘byor
chen po). The first of the ‘Three Inner Tantras.’ Mahayoga
as scripture is divided into two parts: Tantra Section and Sadhana
Section. The Tantra Section consists of the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras
while the Sadhana Section is comprised of the Eight Sadhana Teachings.
Jamgon Kongtrul says in his Treasury of Knowledge: “Mahayoga
emphasizes means (upaya), the development stage, and the view that
liberation is attained through growing accustomed to the insight
into the nature of the indivisibility of the superior two truths.”
The superior two truths in Mahayoga are purity and equality: The
pure natures of the aggregates, elements and sense factors are the
male and female buddhas and bodhisattvas. At the same time, everything
that appears and exists is of the equal nature of emptiness.
| Maitreya (byams pa). ‘The
Loving One.’ The bodhisattva regent of Buddha Shakyamuni,
presently residing in the Tushita heaven until becoming the fifth
buddha of this aeon; author of five treatises preserved by Asanga.
| Major and Minor Gathering Tantra
(tshogs rgyud che chung). A Mahayoga scripture explaining
the ritual of a ganachakra. See also ‘feast offering.’
| Maledictory Fierce Mantra
(rmod pa drag sngags). One of the Eight Sadhana Teachings.
| Mamo (ma mo). 1) See under
Mundane Mother Deities. 2) A class of semi-divine beings who sometimes
act as protectors of the Dharma.
| Mandala (dkyil ‘khor).
1) ‘Center and surrounding.’ Usually a deity along with
its surrounding environment. A mandala is a symbolic, graphic representation
of a tantric deity’s realm of existence. 2) A mandala offering
is an offering visualized as the entire universe, as well as the
arrangement of offerings in tantric ritual.
| Mandarava Flower (man
da ra ba me tog). Princess of Zahor and close disciple of Guru Rinpoche.
One of his five main consorts. Her name refers to the coral tree,
Erythrina Indica, one of the five trees of paradise, which has brilliant
scarlet flowers. She is said to be identical with the dakini Niguma
and the yogini by the name Adorned with Human Bone Ornaments. In
The Precious Garland of Lapis Lazuli (p. 352), Jamgon Kongtrul
says, “Born as the daughter of Vihardhara, the king of Zahor,
and Queen Mohauki accompanied by miraculous signs, (and because
of her great beauty), many kings from India and China vied to take
her as their bride. Nevertheless, she had an unshakable renunciation
and entered the gate of the Dharma. Padmasambhava perceived that
she was to be his disciple and accepted her as his spiritual consort,
but the king, fearing that his bloodline would be contaminated,
had the master burned alive. When Padmasambhava showed the miracle
of transforming the mass of fire into a lake, the king gained faith
and without hesitation offered his entire kingdom and the princess.
When the king requested teachings, Padmasambhava showered upon twenty-one
disciples the great rain of the Dharma by transmitting the tantras,
scriptures and oral instructions of Kadu Chokyi Gyamtso,
the Dharma Ocean Embodying All Teachings. Thus the master established
the king and his ministers on the vidyadhara levels. Guru Rinpoche
accepted her as his consort and in Maratika, the Cave of Bringing
Death to and End, both master and consort displayed the manner of
achieving the unified vajra body on the vidyadhara level of life
mastery. Mandarava remained in India and has directly and indirectly
brought a tremendous benefit to beings. In Tibet, she appeared miraculously
at the great Dharma Wheel of Tramdruk where she exchanged symbolic
praises and replies with Guru Rinpoche. The details of that are
recorded extensively in the Padma Kathang. An independent life story
of Mandarava is found in the collected writings of Orgyen Lingpa.
Mandarava was a wisdom dakini among whose different names and manifestations
are counted the yogini Adorned with Human Bone Ornaments, (Mirukyi
Gyenchen), at the time of Lord Marpa, Risulkyi Naljorma at
the time of Nyen Lotsawa, and Drubpey Gyalmo at the time of Rechungpa.
Mandarava is also accepted as being Chushingi Nyemachen, the consort
of Maitripa, as well as the dakini Niguma. Her compassionate emanations
and her blessings are beyond any doubt and since she attained the
indestructible rainbow body she is surely present (in the world)
| Mang-yul (mang yul). The
area north of the Kathmandu valley, between Trisuli and the present
border to Tibet.
| Manjushri (‘jam
dpal dbyangs). One of the eight main bodhisattvas. He is the personification
of the perfection of transcendent knowledge.
| Manjushri Body (‘jam
dpal sku). The heruka of the Tathagata Body family or the tantric
teachings connected to this deity among the ‘Eight Sadhana Teachings.’ Also known as Yamantaka, the wrathful form of
| Manjushri Namasangirti Tantra Expressed
in Songs of Praise (‘jam dpal gyi mtshan yang dag
par brjod pa bstod pa glur blangs pa’i rgyud). A tantra belonging
to Kriya Yoga known to all Tibetan Buddhists as ‘Jampal Tsenjo.’
Translated as Chanting the Names of Manjushri, A. Wayman, Shambhala
| Manjushrimitra (‘jam
dpal bshes gnyen, pron. Jampal Shenyen). An Indian master in the
Dzogchen lineage and the chief disciple of Garab Dorje. In his role
as a master in the lineage of the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga, he
received the transmission of Yamantaka in the form of the Secret
Wrathful Manjushri Tantra and other texts. Manjushrimitra was born
in the Magadha district of India and was soon an adept in the general
sciences and the conventional topics of Buddhism. After having become
the most eminent among five hundred panditas, he received many teachings
and empowerments from Garab Dorje, Lalitavajra, and other masters
and reached the unified level of enlightenment, indivisible from
Manjushri. Yamantaka appeared to him in person, conferred empowerment
and transmitted the tantras and oral instructions. Among his chief
recipients of this teaching were Hungkara, Padmasambhava, and Hanatela.
There seem to have been several masters with this name, but Guru
Tashi Tobgyal in his Ocean of Wondrous Sayings to Delight the Learned
Ones views them as being magical emanations of the same master.
See also Sadhana Section.
| Mantra (sngags). 1) A
synonym for Vajrayana. 2) A particular combination of sounds symbolizing
and communicating the nature of a deity and which lead to purification
and realization, for example Om mani padme hung. There are chiefly
three types of mantra: guhya mantra, vidya mantra and dharani mantra.
| Mantra and Philosophy
(sngags dang mtshan nyid). Mantra is synonymous with Secret Mantra
or Vajrayana while Philosophy refers to the ‘causal vehicles
of philosophy:’ Hinayana and Mahayana.
| Mantradhara (sngags ‘chang).
An adept of tantric rituals.
| Mantric (sngags kyi).
Of or pertaining to Vajrayana.
| Mantrika (sngags pa).
| Mara (bdud). Demon or
demonic influence that creates obstacles for practice and enlightenment.
Mythologically said be a powerful god who dwells in the highest
abode in the Realm of Desire; the master of illusion who attempted
to prevent the Buddha from attaining enlightenment at Bodhgaya.
For the Dharma practitioner, Mara symbolizes one’s own ego-clinging
and preoccupation with the eight worldly concerns. Generally, there
are four maras or obstructions to practice of the Dharma: those
of defilements, death and the aggregates, and the godly mara of
seduction. Sometimes the four maras are mentioned by name; Lord
of Death, Godly Son, Klesha and Skandha.
| Maratika (‘chi ba
mthar byed). The sacred place in eastern Nepal where Guru Rinpoche
and Mandarava were blessed with immortal life by Buddha Amitayus.
| Master Bodhisattva (slob
dpon bo dhi sa tva). See ‘Shantarakshita.’
| Meadow of Monkha
(mon kha ne’u ring). Possibly identical with Monkha Senge
Dzong, a cave situated to the east of Bumthang in Bhutan which was
used by Padmasambhava and later by Yeshe Tsogyal as a sacred place
for the sadhana of Vajra Kilaya.
| Meaningful Lasso Tantra
(don yod zhags pa’i rgyud). A tantra focused on Avalokiteshvara;
belongs to Kriya Yoga and is also known as Amogha Pasha.
| Meditation and postmeditation
(mnyam bzhag dang rjes thob). ‘Meditation’ here means
resting in equanimity free from mental constructs, like pure space.
‘Postmeditation’ is when distracted from that state
of equanimity, and one conceptually regards appearances as an illusion,
mirage, dream, etc.
| Mighty Lotus (padma dbang
chen). Same as the tantric deity Hayagriva, the chief heruka of
the padma family.
| Mighty Lotus Tantra (padma
dbang chen gyi rgyud). Several Mahayoga tantras with resembling
names occur in Vol. HA of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Mind and prana (rlung
sems). ‘Prana’ here is the ‘wind of karma,’
the current of conceptual thinking, as well as the energy-currents
in the body. ‘Mind’ is the dualistic consciousness of
an unenlightened being. These two are closely related.
| Mind Section (sems sde).
The first of the Three Sections of Dzogchen. In this book twenty-five
tantras and eighteen major scriptures are mentioned. Most are found
in the first three volumes of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Most Supreme (che mchog). Chemchok
Heruka. Usually identical with Nectar
Quality, the chief heruka of the ratna family. Sometimes, in
the case of Assemblage
of Sugatas, the Most Supreme is the heruka who embodies all
the buddha families.
| Mother Deities (ma mo).
| Mother Deities Assemblage Tantra
(ma mo ‘dus pa’i rgyud). Tantra belonging
to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga. Found in Vol. A of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Mother Tantra (ma rgyud).
One of the three aspects of Anuttara Yoga which place emphasis on
completion stage or prajna. Sometimes equivalent of Anu Yoga.
| Mount Hepori (has po ri).
| Mount Sumeru (ri rab lhun
po). The mythological giant mountain at the center of our world-system,
where the two lowest classes of gods of the Desire Realm live. It
is surrounded by chains of lesser mountains, lakes, continents,
and oceans and is said to rise 84000 leagues above sea-level.
| Mudra (phyag rgya). Can
mean either ‘hand gesture,’ spiritual consort, or the
‘bodily form’ of a deity.
| Mundane Worship (‘jig
rten mchod bstod). One of the Eight Sadhana Teachings.
| Naga (klu). Powerful long-lived
serpent-like beings who inhabit bodies of water and often guard
great treasure. Nagas belong half to the animal realm and half to
the god realm. They generally live in the form of snakes, but many
can change into human form.
| Nagaraja angkusha dzah
(Skt.). A command which means: “I summon the king of the nagas!”
| Nagarjuna (klu grub). An Indian
master of philosophy and a tantric siddha. One of the Eight
Vidyadharas; receiver of the tantras of Lotus Speech such as
Supreme Steed Display. He is said to have taken birth in the southern
part of India around four hundred years after the Buddha’s
nirvana. Having received ordination at Nalanda Monastery, he later
acted as preceptor for the monks. He
knew alchemy, stayed alive for six hundred years and transformed
ordinary materials into gold in order to sustain the sangha. At
Bodhgaya he erected pillars and stone walls to protect the Bodhi
Tree and constructed 108 stupas. From the realm of the nagas he
brought back the extensive Prajnaparamita scriptures. He was the
life pillar for the Mahayana, but specifically he was a major exponent
of the Unexcelled Vehicle of Vajrayana. Having attained realization
of Hayagriva, he transmitted the lineage to Padmasambhava.
| Nalanda (Skt.). The great
monastic center for Buddhist studies in ancient India. Situated
in the present Indian state of Bihar, a few hours drive from Bodhgaya.
Nyingpo of Nub (gnubs nam mkha’i snying po).
Born in Lower Nyal, he was one of the first Tibetans to take ordination.
| Namo (phyag ‘tshal
lo). Expression of homage and respect; salutation.
| Namo ratna guru (bla ma
rin po che la phyag ‘tshal lo). “I pay homage to the
| Natural Confession (rang
bzhin gyi bshags pa). A synonym for the Confession of the Expanse
of the View, ‘Tawa Longshag.’
| Nectar (bdud rtsi, Skt.
amrita). 1) The ‘nectar of immortality;’ the ambrosia
of the gods conferring immortality or other powers. 2) Abbreviation
of ‘Nectar Quality,’ the heruka of the ratna family
among the Eight Sadhana Teachings.
| Nectar Medicine (bdud
rtsi sman). 1) The nectar of immortality. 2) Same as Nectar Quality.
| Nectar Quality (bdud rtsi
yon tan). One of the Eight Sadhana Teachings. The heruka of the
ratna family or the tantric teachings connected with that deity.
| Ngadag Nyang (mnga’ bdag
nyang / myang). See Nyang
Ral Nyima Oser.
| Ngagyur Shechen Tennyi Dargye Ling
(snga ‘gyur zhe chen bstan gnyis dar rgyas gling).
The seat of His Holiness Dilgo Khyentse in Nepal, situated at the
Great Stupa of Jarung Khashor in Boudhanath.
| Ngakpa (sngags pa). See
| Nine Root Tantras (rtsa
ba’i rgyud dgu). The most important Mahayoga tantras of the
Sadhana Section (sgrub sde). Listed in Chapter 19.
| Nine Sadhana Sections (sgrub
pa sde dgu). The Eight Sadhana Teachings
in addition to the teachings connected to Guru
the Assemblage of
Sugatas is counted as the ninth.
| Nirmanakaya (sprul sku).
‘Emanation body,’ ‘form of magical apparition.’
The third of the three kayas. The aspect of enlightenment that can
be perceived by ordinary beings.
| Nirmanakaya Padmasambhava
(sprul sku pad ma ‘byung gnas). Same as Guru Rinpoche. A respectful
way of addressing Guru Rinpoche showing that he is a manifestation
of an enlightened being.
| Non-Buddhist (mu stegs
pa, Skt. tirthika). Teachers of non-Buddhist philosophy who adhere
to the extreme views of eternalism or nihilism.
| Nonarising (skye ba med
pa). In the aspect of ultimate truth, all phenomena are devoid of
an independent, concrete identity and have therefore no basis for
such attributes as ‘arising, dwelling or ceasing’ i.e.
coming into being, remaining in time and place, and ceasing to exist.
| Nonarising dharmata (chos
nyid skye ba med pa). The nature of things which like space does
not come into being as a concrete, apprehensible entity.
| Nonconceptual (rnam par
mi rtog pa). Of or pertaining to the absence of conceptual thinking
or discursive thought.
| Nonfabrication (bzo med,
ma bcos). The key point in the training of Mahamudra and Dzogchen;
that innate wakefulness is not created through intellectual effort.
| Nonhumans (mi ma yin).
Spirits, ghost, demons.
| Nonmeditation (mi bsgom).
The state of not holding on to an object meditated upon nor a subject
| Nonreturn (phyir mi ldog
pa). See under ‘fruition of nonreturn.’
| Nonvirtues (mi dge ba).
Usually referring to the ten unvirtuous actions: The physical misdeeds
of killing, taking what is not given, and engaging in sexual misconduct;
the verbal misdeeds of lying, uttering divisive talk, harsh words,
and gossiping; and the mental misdeeds of harboring covetousness,
ill-will, and wrong views.
Ral Nyima Oser (myang ral nyi ma ‘od zer). In
the district of Lhodrag situated to the south of Samye in Central
Tibet, a child was born to Nyangton Chokyi Khorlo, a renowned Nyingma
yogi, and his wife Lady Yeshe Dron. The child was named Nyima Oser,
‘Beam of Sunlight,’ an extraordinary being who possessed
eight marvellous signs including three moles in the shapes of the
syllables OM AH HUNG on his forehead, throat and heart center. After
being concealed at home until the age of twelve, unknown to other
people, he was taken to a fair arranged by his uncle. At the fair
he outshone everyone in the horse race and when seated upon a small
throne by his uncle, Nyima Oser expounded bodhichitta, inspiring
deep faith in the whole gathering. Because of the twelve year old
long hair that was wrapped around his head to hide his ushnika and
the OM in his forehead, he was given the name Lord Nyang Ral, the
Braided Master of Nyang. To the age of twenty-five he studied the
prevalent tantric systems of Nyingma and Shijey with many great
masters. Following directions given to him by Padmasambhava in person,
Nyima Oser went to the cave named Imprint of the Raksha’s
Claw and to Pearl Crystal Cave of Pama Ridge where he received empowerment
and blessings from both Padmasambhava and Yeshe Tsogyal. During
the following years, Nyima Oser revealed an incredible amount of
terma treasures. Without propagating a single of these teachings,
he kept them secret and remained in retreat at Samye Chimphu for
six years. During the retreat, Padmasambhava appeared for seven
days and bestowed upon Nyima Oser whichever profound instruction
he was requested. Finally, Padmasambhava dissolved into Nyima Oser’s
heart, producing an experience of bliss, clarity and nonthought
which lasted for six months. At another occasion, Yeshe Tsogyal
commanded him to go to Lhodrak and establish a temple there for
the benefit of beings. Later Nyang Ral Nyima Oser went to Lhodrak
where innumerable disciples gradually gathered around him. Due to
the tremendous impact of the terma treasures he revealed, Nyima
Oser is considered the first of five terton kings.
| Nyenchen Tanglha (gnyan
chen thang lha). Important protector of the Nyingma teachings, regarded
as a bodhisattva on the eighth level. Also a name of a mountain
| Nyingma Gyubum (rnying
ma rgyud ‘bum). ‘The Hundred Thousand Tantras of the
Old School.’ A collection of scriptures belonging to the Three
Inner Tantras, gathered by Ratna Lingpa and re-edited by Jigmey
Lingpa. Various editions exist, but the numbering of the volumes
used in this book are from the version in 36 volumes published by
His Holiness Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, New Delhi, 1974. Structure
of this edition: 10 volumes of Ati Yoga, 3 volumes of Anu Yoga,
6 volumes of the Tantra Section of Mahayoga, 13 volumes of the Sadhana
Section of Mahayoga, 1 volume of protector tantras, and 3 volumes
of catalogues and historical background.
| Nyingma Kama (rnying ma
bka’ ma). ‘The Oral Transmission of the Old School.’
56 volumes in the expanded edition published by His Holiness Dudjom
Rinpoche, New Delhi.
| Nyingma School (rnying
ma). The teachings brought to Tibet and translated mainly during
the reign of King Trisong Deutsen and in the subsequent period up
to Rinchen Sangpo in the ninth century chiefly by the great masters
Padmasambhava, Vimalamitra, Shantarakshita, and Vairotsana. The
two subsequent main types of transmission are Kama and Terma. Practices
are based on both the Outer and Inner Tantras with emphasis on the
practice of the Inner Tantras of Mahayoga, Anu Yoga and Ati Yoga.
| Nyingma Tantras (rnying
rgyud). See Nyingma Gyubum.
| Ocean of Cleansing Sacred commitment
(dam tshig khrus lung rgya mtsho). Name of a tantric scripture
on purification of samaya, the vows of Vajrayana practice.
| Orgyen (o rgyan). 1) Uddiyana,
the country. 2) The master from Uddiyana, Padmasambhava.
| Outer and inner teachings of Secret
Mantra (gsang sngags phyi nang gi chos). The three outer
are Kriya, Upa and Yoga. The three inner are Mahayoga, Anu Yoga
and Ati Yoga.
| Outer Secret Mantra (gsang
sngags phyi pa). Same as ‘Outer Tantras of Secret Mantra.’
| Outer Tantras of Secret Mantra
(gsang sngags phyi’i rgyud sde). The tantras belonging to
the three vehicles of Kriya, Ubhaya and Yoga. In the context of
the Old School of the Early Translations, Ngagyur Nyingma, they
were translated into Tibetan mainly by Shantarakshita and Kawa Paltsek.
Listed in chapter 12.
| Padma (pad ma). 1) Same
as Padmasambhava. 2) The lotus family among the five buddha families.
| Padma Thotreng Tsal
(padma thod phreng rtsal). The secret name of Guru Rinpoche meaning
‘Powerful Lotus of the Garland of Skulls.’
| Padmakara (pad ma ‘byung
gnas). ‘Lotus-born.’ Same as Guru Rinpoche. Padmakara
and Padmasambhava are interchangeable in Tibetan literature, sometimes
is used the Tibetan translation Pema Jungney, sometimes the Sanskrit.
| Padmasambhava (pad ma
‘byung gnas). ‘Originated from a Lotus.’
| Pal-yang (dpal dbyangs).
A Tibetan translator predicted by Padmasambhava. The first monk
ordained by Khenpo Bodhisattva. He is also known as Ratna of Ba
| Palgyi Senge of Lang (rlangs
dpal gyi seng ge). His father was Amey Jangchub Drekhol, a powerful
mantrika who could employ the eight classes of gods and demons as
his servants. Palgyi Senge of Lang was one of the eight chief disciples
of Padmasambhava when the empowerment of the Assemblage
of Sugatas was conferred. He attained both the common and supreme
accomplishments at Paro Taktsang through the practice of the Tamer
of All Haughty Spirits.
| Palgyi Senge of Shubu
(shud bu dpal gyi seng ge). As one of the ministers of King Trisong
Deutsen, he was sent among the first emissaries to invite Padmasambhava
to Tibet. He learned translation from Padmasambhava and rendered
numerous teachings of Mamo, Yamantaka and Kilaya into Tibetan. Having
attained accomplishment through Kilaya and Mamo, he could split
boulders and divide the flow of rivers with his dagger.
| Palgyi Wangchuk of Kharchen
(mkhar chen dpal gyi dbang phyug). Here in the Sanglingma, he is
described as the father of Yeshe Tsogyal, but elsewhere as her brother
who became a close disciple of Padmasambhava.
| Palgyi Yeshe (dpal gyi
ye shes). Born into the Drogmi clan he was also known as Palgyi
Yeshe of Drogmi. He was an adept translator and rendered numerous
sutras and tantras into Tibetan including the Tantra of the Mother
Deities Mamo. He received the transmission of the Mother Deities,
from Padmasambhava and became an accomplished mantrika.
| Palgyi Yeshe of Lang (rlangs
dpal gyi ye she). One of the first Tibetans to take ordination.
He received also transmission from Hungkara in India but died on
the way back.
| Pandita (mkhas pa). A
learned master, scholar, professor in Buddhist philosophy.
| Parinirvana (yongs su
mya ngan las ‘das pa). ‘Completely passing beyond suffering.’
1) The final entry into nirvana. 2) Honorific term for the passing
away of a buddha or a fully accomplished master.
| Path of liberation (grol
lam). 1) When related to the ‘path of ripening’ it refers
to the practice of the oral instructions of one’s personal
vajra master. 2) When related to the ‘path of means’
it refers to the practice of sustaining the natural state of mind;
Mahamudra or Dzogchen.
| Path of ripening (smin
lam). The process of receiving the four empowerments.
| Path of training (slob
pa’i lam). The first four of the five paths. The fifth is
also called the ‘path beyond training’ and corresponds
to perfect buddhahood.
| Patra (pa tra). A brick
ornamented with flourishes. A gold patra possibly weighs several
| Pearl Crystal Cave of Pama Ridge
(mu tig shel gyi spa ma gangs). This is the practice cave
of Guru Rinpoche where he gave many of the Instructions found in
| Phonya (pho nya). 1) Messenger,
emissary. 2) Spiritual consort in Vajrayana practice.
| Pointing-out instruction
(ngo sprod). The direct introduction to the nature of mind. A root
guru is the master who gives the ‘pointing-out instruction’
so that the disciple recognizes the nature of mind.
| Postmeditation (rjes thob).
Generally, the period of being involved in sense perceptions and
daily activities. Specifically, the period of being distracted from
the natural state of mind.
| Potala (gru ‘dzin).
The pure land of Avalokiteshvara.
| Prabhahasti (glang po’i
od). Same as Prahasti.
| Prahasti (glang po’i
od, Skt. Prabhahasti). ‘Radiant Elephant.’ Among the
Eight Vidyadharas the receiver of the transmission of the tantras
of Kilaya Activity. Born to a royal family in the western part of
India and named Shakyaprabha when ordained as monk, Prahasti became
extremely well-versed in the Tripitaka and studied Secret Mantra
with Vajrahasya (rdo rje bzhad pa) and numerous other masters. He
achieved supreme accomplishment and had, together with his disciple
Shakyamitra, a tremendous impact on the Dharma in Kashmir.
| Prajnaparamita (shes rab
kyi pha rol tu phyin pa). ‘Transcendent knowledge.’
The Mahayana teachings on insight into emptiness, transcending the
fixation of subject, object and action. Associated with the Second
Turning of the Wheel of Dharma.
| Prana (rlung). The ‘winds’
or energy-currents of the body.
| Pratyekabuddha (rang rgyal,
rang sangs rgyas). ‘Solitarily Enlightened One.’ A Hinayana
Arhant who attains Nirvana chiefly through contemplation on the
twelve links of dependent origination in reverse order, without
needing teachings in that lifetime. He lacks the complete realization
of a buddha and so cannot benefit limitless sentient beings as a
| Prince Virtuous Protector
(lha sras dge mgon). The youngest son of Trisong Deutsen also known
as Murub Tseypo.
| Protectors (srung ma).
See ‘Dharma protector.’
| Rahula (gza’). One
of the eight classes of gods and demons.
| Raksha (srin po). One
of the eight classes of gods and demons. Also the cannibal savages
inhabiting the southwestern continent of Chamara. At times ‘raksha’
refers to the unruly and untamed expression of ignorance and disturbing
| Ralpachen (ral pa can).
(815-841) or (866-901). The third great Dharma King of Tibet. He
supported the standardization of new grammar and vocabulary for
translation and the revision of old translations. He renewed old
centers for learning and practice and invited many Buddhist scholars
to Tibet. He was renowned for his devotion to the Dharma and is
regarded as an incarnation of Vajrapani.
| Ramochey (ra mo che).
One of two important temples in Lhasa housing the statue of Buddha
Shakyamuni brought to Tibet by the queens of King Songtsen
| Rampant Elephant Tantra
(glang po che rab ‘bog gi rgyud). A Mahayoga scripture. A
tantra of this title is found in Vol. DZA of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Ratna (rin chen, dkon
mchog). Jewel; precious.
| Red Rock (brag dmar).
The location of the temple complex of Samye. The mountain slope
behind Samye is of a bright red color.
| Resultant vehicle (‘bras
bu’i theg pa). The Vajrayana system of taking fruition as
the path by regarding buddhahood as inherently present and the path
as the act of uncovering the basic state. This is different from
the ‘causal philosophical vehicles’ of Mahayana and
Hinayana that regard the path as that which leads to and produces
the state of buddhahood. Ultimately, these two approaches are not
in conflict. See also ‘Secret Mantra.’
| Rinchen Chok of Ma (rma
rin chen mchog). Early Tibetan translator, among the first seven
Tibetans to take ordination from Shantarakshita and the chief recipient
of the Magical Net of Mahayoga. He is known for translating the
Essence of Secrets Guhyagarbha Tantra, the chief tantra of Mahayoga.
Through the teachings he received from Padmasambhava he attained
the level of a vidyadhara.
Terdzo (rin chen gter mdzod chen mo). ‘The Great
Treasury of Precious Termas’
| Ripening and liberation
(smin grol). Two vital parts of Vajrayana practice: The empowerments
which ripen one’s being with the capacity to realize the four
kayas and the liberating oral instructions enabling one to actually
apply the insight that was introduced through the empowerments.
| Rishi (drang srong). 1)
‘Seer’, inspired Vedic sage, Brahmanical ascetic with
magical powers. 2) Title for someone has attained the power of truthful
speech so that whatever he says comes true.
| Roaring Lion (seng ge
sgra grogs). Senge Dradrog. One of Padmasambhava’s eight manifestations.
| Rombuguhya Devachandra
(Skt., lha’i zla ba). One of the Eight Vidyadharas, receiver
of the transmission of Mundane Worship; born in Uddiyana.
| Root Tantra of the Assemblage of Sugatas
(bde gshegs ‘dus pa rtsa ba’i rgyud). Tantra
belonging to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga found in Vol. OM and
AH of the Nyingma Gyubum.
See also Assemblage
| Sacred commitment (dam
tshig, Skt. samaya). See samaya.
| Sacred Great Perfection
(bka’ rdzogs pa chen po). See Dzogchen, Ati Yoga, and Great
| Sacred Incantation (gzungs,
Skt. dharani). A particular type of mantra, usually quite long.
| Sacred Peace Deity Tantra
(zhi ba dam pa lha’i rgyud). One of the Eighteen Mahayoga
Tantras. In the Golden Garland Chronicles this same text is named
Peaceful Vajradhatu Tantra (zhi ba rdo rje dbyings kyi rgyud).
| Saddharma Pundarika Sutra
(dam chos pad-ma dkar po’i mdo). ‘The Sutra of the White
Lotus of the Sacred Dharma.’ Famous Mahayana scripture.
| Sadhana (sgrub thabs).
‘Means of accomplishment.’ Tantric liturgy and procedure
for practice usually emphasizing the development stage. The typical
sadhana structure involves a preliminary part including the taking
of refuge and arousing bodhichitta, a main part involving visualization
of a buddha and recitation of the mantra, and a concluding part
with dedication of merit to all sentient beings.
| Sadhana Section (sgrub sde).
One of the two major aspects of Mahayoga scriptures, the other being
the Tantra Section. See also ‘Assemblage
of Sugatas’ or Mahayoga.
| Saha world-system (mi
mjed kyi ‘jig rten gyi khams). The name of our present world
system. Saha means ‘enduring’ because the sentient beings
here endure unbearable suffering.
| Samadhi (ting nge ‘dzin).
‘Adhering to the continuity of evenness.’ A state of
undistracted concentration or meditative absorption which in the
context of Vajrayana can refer to either the development stage or
the completion stage.
| Samantabhadra (kun tu
bzang po). The ‘Ever-excellent One.’ 1) The primordial
dharmakaya buddha. 2) The bodhisattva Samantabhadra used as the
example for the perfection of increasing an offering infinitely.
| Samantabhadri (kun tu
bzang mo). See under Ever-excellent Lady.
| Samaya (dam tshig). The
sacred pledges, precepts or commitments of Vajrayana practice. Samayas
essentially consist of outwardly, maintaining harmonious relationship
with the vajra master and one’s Dharma friends and, inwardly,
not straying from the continuity of the practice. At the end of
a chapter, the single word ‘samaya’ is an oath that
confirms that what has been stated is true.
| Sambhogakaya (longs spyod
rdzogs pa’i sku). The ‘body of perfect enjoyment.’
In the context of the ‘five kayas of fruition,’ sambhogakaya
is the semi-manifest form of the buddhas endowed with the ‘five
perfections’ of perfect teacher, retinue, place, teaching
and time which is perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the ten levels.
| Sambhogakaya Great Compassion
(longs sku thugs rje chen po). Same as Avalokiteshvara.
| Samsara (‘khor ba).
‘Cyclic existence,’ ‘vicious circle’ or
‘round’ of birth and death and rebirth within the six
realms of existence, characterized by suffering, impermanence, and
ignorance. The state of ordinary sentient beings fettered by ignorance
and dualistic perception, karma and disturbing emotions. Ordinary
reality, an endless cycle of frustration and suffering generated
as the result of karma.
| Samsaric (‘khor
ba’i). Of or pertaining to samsara; worldly, mundane, profane.
| Samye (bsam yas). The
wondrous temple complex built by King Trisong Deutsen (790-844)
and consecrated by Guru Rinpoche; center of the early transmission.
It is situated in Central Tibet close to Lhasa. It is also known
as ‘Glorious Samye, the Unchanging and Spontaneously Accomplished
| Samye Chimphu (bsam yas
chims phu). The sacred place of Padmasambhava’s speech. A
mountain retreat situated four hours walk above Samye. During the
last twelve centuries numerous great masters have meditated in the
caves at this hermitage.
| Sandal Grove charnel ground
(tsan dan tshal gyi dur khrod). The Golden Garland Chronicles (p.
179) describes this place as: ‘The eminent celestial sacred
place of the vidyadharas, the wild jungle which is a crossroad on
the secret path of great bliss.’ It is also counted among
the traditional Eight Charnel Grounds.
| Sangha (dge ‘dun).
The community of practitioners; usually the fully ordained monks
and nuns. The Noble Sangha means those who have achieved the path
of seeing among the five paths and therefore are liberated from
| Sanglingma (zangs gling
ma). The name of the text used for this translation of Padmasambhava’s
life story. See Translator’s Preface.
Yeshe of Nub (gnubs sangs rgyas ye shes). One of the
twenty-five disciples of Padmasambhava. He was the chief recipient
of the Anu Yoga teachings as well as the Yamantaka of Mahayoga.
| Sarma Schools (gsar ma).
‘New Schools.’ The New Schools are Kagyu, Sakya,
and Gelug as well as Shijey and Cho, Jordruk, Shangpa Kagyu,
and Nyendrup (the Kalachakra system).
| Sarvabuddha Samayoga (sangs
rgyas mnyam sbyor). ‘Equalizing Buddhahood.’ A Mahayoga
scripture. Three tantras of this name are found in Vol. MA of the
Nyingma Gyubum. Sometimes counted among the Eighteen Mahayoga
Tantras as the tantra of enlightened body.
| Scripture (mdo, lung).
In the context of this book, a scripture belonging to the category
of Anu Yoga or Ati Yoga.
| Scripture in Eight Chapters
(lung bam po brgyad pa). One of the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras. Vol.
LA of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Scripture of the Embodiment of the
Realization of All Buddhas. (sangs rgyas thams cad dgongs
pa ‘dus pa’i mdo). The Anu Yoga scripture renowned as
| Scriptures and realization
(lung dang rtogs pa). Authoritative scriptures and the realization
of the Dharma in the minds of noble beings.
| Secret Mantra (gsang sngags,
Skt. guhyamantra). Synonymous with Vajrayana or tantric teachings.
‘Guhya’ means secret, both concealed and self-secret.
‘Mantra’ in this context means eminent, excellent, or
| Secret Mantra of the Early Translations
(gsang sngags snga ‘gyur). The Vajrayana system
of the Nyingma School the emphasis of which is on the Three Inner
Tantras: Mahayoga, Anu Yoga and Ati Yoga. According to Jamgon
Kongtrul, the chief scriptures are the Magical Net of Mahayoga,
the Embodiment of Realization of Anu Yoga, and the Dzogchen tantras
of the Mind Section and Space Section. These are adorned with the
Eight Sadhana Teachings while the vital life force is the Instruction
Section of Dzogchen, the extract of the realization of Padmasambhava
and Vimalamitra which is contained in the collection renowned as
Nyingtig Yabshi. See also Three Inner Tantras and Nyingma School.
| Secret Moon Essence (zla
gsang thig le). A Mahayoga scripture. Vol. MA of the Nyingma Gyubum.
Sometimes counted among the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras as the tantra
of enlightened speech.
| Self-existing wisdom (rang
byung ye shes). Basic wakefulness that is independent of intellectual
| Sentient being (sems can).
Any living being in one of the six realms who has not attained liberation.
| Seven aspects of union
(kha sbyor yan lag bdun). The seven qualities of a sambhogakaya
buddha: complete enjoyment, union, great bliss, absence of a self-nature,
presence of compassion, being uninterrupted, and being unceasing.
| Seven golden mountains
(gser ri bdun). According to the cosmology of the Abhidharma, seven
circles of mountains surrounding Mount Sumeru in the center of our
| Seven precious substances
(rin chen bdun). Ruby, sapphire, lapis, emerald, diamond, pearl
and coral. Sometimes the list includes gold, silver, and crystal.
| Shakputri (Skt.). The
son of King Jah and lineage holder of both Mahayoga and Anu Yoga.
He is also known as Indrabhuti the Younger and Master Lawapa.
| Shakya (Skt.). The name
of the family clan into which Buddha Shakyamuni was born. practitioners
are often given Shakya as a part of their Buddhist name.
| Shakya Senge (sha kya
seng ge). One of the eight manifestations of Padmasambhava.
| Shakyadevi (Skt.). The
daughter of the Nepalese king Punyedhara. She is one of the five
chief female disciples of Padmasambhava. Since her mother died during
her birth, she was abandoned in a charnel ground and brought up
by monkeys. Having been accepted as Padmasambhava’s worthy
companion, she was his consort for the practice of the nine divinities
of Vishuddha in the Cave of Yanglesho where they displayed
the manner of achieving the vidyadhara level of mahamudra. Shakyadevi
attained the accomplishment of the female buddha Mamaki and finally
achieved the indestructible rainbow body.
| Shakyamuni (sha kya thub
pa). ‘The Sage of the Shakyas,’ Buddha Shakyamuni, our
| Shamanism (bon ‘gyer).
In this book the term has the negative connotation of rituals performed
for selfish or superficial mundane aims.
| Shantarakshita (zhi ba
‘tsho). ‘Guardian of Peace.’ The Indian pandita
and abbot of Vikramashila and of Samye who ordained the first Tibetan
monks. He was an incarnation of the bodhisattva Vajrapani and is
also known as Khenpo Bodhisattva or Bhikshu Bodhisattva Shantarakshita.
He is the founder of philosophical school combining Madhyamika and
Yogachara. This tradition was reestablished and clarified by Mipham
Rinpoche in his commentary on the Madhyamaka Lamkara.
| Shintam Garbha (Skt.,
zhi ba’i snying po). One of the Eight Vidyadharas, receiver
of the transmission of Maledictory Fierce Mantra. Born in Uddiyana
and reputed to have visited Tibet and participated in the consecration
of the Samye Temple.
| Shravaka (nyan thos).
‘Hearer’ or ‘listener.’ Hinayana practitioner
of the First Turning of the Wheel of the Dharma on the four noble
truths who realizes the suffering inherent in samsara, and focuses
on understanding that there is no independent self. By conquering
disturbing emotions, he liberates himself, attaining first the stage
of Stream Enterer at the Path of Seeing, followed by the stage of
Once-Returner who will be reborn only one more time, and the stage
of Non-returner who will no longer be reborn into samsara. The final
goal is to become an Arhant. These four stages are also known as
the ‘four results of spiritual practice.’
| Shri Singha (Skt). Shri
Singha was the chief disciple and successor of Manjushrimitra in
the lineage of the Dzogchen teachings. He was born in the Chinese
city of Shokyam in Khotan and studied at first with the Chinese
masters Hatibhala and Bhelakirti. In his Ocean of Wondrous Sayings,
Guru Tashi Tobgyal adds that Shri Singha received a prophesy from
Avalokiteshvara while traveling to Serling, telling him to go to
the Sosaling charnel ground in order to be sure of the ultimate
attainment. After many years Shri Singha met Manjushrimitra in the
charnel ground of Sosaling, and remained with him for twenty-five
years. Having transmitted all the oral instructions, the great master
Manjushrimitra dissolved his bodily form into a mass of light. When
Shri Singha cried out in despair and uttered songs of deep yearning,
Manjushrimitra appeared again and bestowed him a tiny casket of
precious substance. The casket contained his master’s final
words, a vital instruction named Gomnyam Drugpa, the Six Experiences
of Meditation. Having received this transmission, Shri Singha reached
ultimate confidence. In Bodhgaya he found the manuscripts of the
tantras previously hidden by Manjushrimitra which he took to China
where he classified the Instruction Section into four parts: the
outer, inner, secret, and the innermost unexcelled sections. Among
Shri Singha’s disciples were four outstanding masters: Jnanasutra,
Vimalamitra, Padmasambhava and the Tibetan translator Vairotsana.
| Siddha (grub thob). ‘Accomplished
one.’ Someone who has attained siddhi; an accomplished master.
| Siddhi (dngos grub). See
| Sign language of dakinis
(mkha’ ‘gro’i brda yig). The secret script of
the female spiritual beings which can only be decoded by accomplished
| Singala (Skt.). The land
where the Anu Yoga teachings appeared.
| Singharaja of Ruley (ru
le sim ha ra dza). One of the first Tibetans to take ordination
who received transmission from Hungkara in India. Also known as
Viryaraja of Ru-yong.
| Single Form (phyag rgya
rkyang pa). Sadhana text of Mahayoga composed by Padmasambhava.
The title refers to the sadhana practice of a single deity without
| Single Syllable (yi ge
gcig ma). A Mahayana sutra. Refers to the letter A, the syllable
symbolizing the nonarising nature of emptiness.
| Six classes of sentient beings
(‘gro ba rigs drug). Gods, demigods, human beings, animals,
hungry ghosts, and hell beings.
| Six limits of Secret Mantra
(gsang sngags kyi mtha’ drug). The views of the expedient
and definitive meaning, the implied and the not implied, the literal
and the not literal.
| Six Secret Sections (gsang
ba sde drug). Listed in Chapter 12. The five first are found in
the most common list of the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras.
| Sixty-eight Crescents
(zla gam drug cu rtsa brgyad). Name of a mandala connected to the
teachings of Vishuddha Heruka.
| Skillful Lasso (thabs
kyi zhags pa). Also known as Concise Lotus Garland (pad mo phreng
ba’i don bsdus pa), this scripture functions as a support
for rituals to attain accomplishment. See Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras.
| Sky Treasury Consecration Tantra
(nam mkha’ mdzod byin rlabs kyi rgyud). The word
sky treasury has the connotation of inexhaustible wealth.
Gampo (srong btsan sgam po). (569-650) or (617-650).
The king of Tibet in the seventh century Tibetan who prepared the
way for transmission of the teachings.
| Stream-of-being (rgyud,
sems rgyud). The individual continuity of cognition in an individual
| Stupa (mchod rten). A
dome-shaped monument housing relics of the Buddha or an accomplished
master. The shape of the stupa embodies an elaborate symbolism.
| Subjugating mantras (drag
snags). Mantras of wrathful deities.
| Subsequent True Enlightenment Tantra
(phyi ma mngon par byang chub pa’i rgyud). Tantra
belonging to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga. found in Vol OM of
the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Suchness (de bzhin nyid,
Skt. tattva). Synonym for emptiness or the ‘nature of things,’
dharmata, it can also be used to describe the unity of dependent
origination and emptiness.
| Sugata (bde bar gshegs
pa). ‘Blissfully gone.’ 1) The historical Buddha Shakyamuni.
2) Any fully enlightened being.
| Sukhavati (bde ba can).
‘Blissful Realm.’ The pure realm of Buddha Amitabha.
| Superknowledge (mngon
shes). Divine sight, divine hearing, recollection of former lives,
cognition of the minds of others, capacity for performing miracles,
and, in the case of accomplished practitioners, the ‘cognition
of the exhaustion of defilements.’
| Supportive rituals (zhabs
brten). Rituals performed to remove obstacles for life and health.
| Supramundane Scripture
(‘jig rten las ‘das pa’i mdo). One of the Eighteen
Mahayoga Tantras; focused on Vishuddha Mind. Vol. RA in the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Supreme Hundred Families
(dam pa rigs brgya). Name of a sadhana text composed by Guru Rinpoche
focused on the hundred peaceful and wrathful deities.
| Supreme Steed Display Root Tantra
(rta mchog rol pa rtsa ba’i rgyud). Tantra belonging
to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga. Two versions are found in Vol.
HA of Nyingma Gyubum.
| Supreme vidyadhara level of mahamudra
(phyag rgya chen po mchog gi rig ‘dzin). 1) Supreme
enlightenment. 2) The third of the four vidyadhara levels. See ‘vidyadhara
level of mahamudra.’
| Sutra (mdo, mdo sde).
1) A discourse by or inspired by the Buddha. 2) A scripture of the
Sutra pitaka within the Tripitaka. 3) All exoteric teachings of
Buddhism belonging to Hinayana and Mahayana, the causal teachings
that regard the path as the cause of enlightenment, as opposed to
the esoteric, tantric teachings.
| Sutra and Mantra (mdo
sngags). Sutra refers to the teachings of both Hinayana and Mahayana.
Mantra refers to Vajrayana. Sutra means taking the cause as path.
Tantra means taking the result as path.
| Swift feet (rkang mgyogs).
The yogic art of being able to walk extremely fast, covering a huge
distance in a short time, through control over the inner currents
| Tamer of All Haughty Spirits
(dregs pa kun ‘dul). The chief figure in the mandala of Mundane
| Tanagana (sbyor sgrol).
The Vajrayana practice of ‘union and liberation:’ liberating
ignorance and disturbing emotions by uniting with the wisdom of
the enlightened state.
| Tanglha (thang lha). See
| Tantra (rgyud). The Vajrayana
teachings given by the Buddha in his sambhogakaya form. The real
sense of tantra is ‘continuity,’ the innate buddha nature,
which is known as the ‘tantra of the expressed meaning.’
The general sense of tantra is the extraordinary tantric scriptures
also known as the ‘tantra of the expressing words.’
Can also refer to all the resultant teachings of Vajrayana as a
| Tantra of Taming Haughty Spirits
(dregs pa ‘dul ba’i rgyud). Tantra belonging
to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga; focused on the section of Mundane
| Tantra of Taming the Elemental Forces
(‘byung po ‘dul byed kyi rgyud). A tantra
belonging to Kriya Yoga.
| Tantra of the Four Vajra Thrones
(rdo rje gdan bzhi’i rgyud). A Mahayoga scripture.
Possibly identical with the Catuhpitha (gdan bzhi) which is included
among the tantras in the Tripitaka.
| Tantra of the General Accomplishment
of Knowledge Mantras (rig sngags spyi’i sgrub lugs
kyi rgyud). One of the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras. Also named Galpo
Dupa (gal po bsdus pa).
| Tantra of the Magical Net of Vajrasattva
(rdo rje sems dpa’ sgyu ‘phrul dra ba’i
rgyud). Same as Essence of Secrets, Guhyagarbha.
| Tantra Section (rgyud
sde). One of the two divisions of Mahayana. The Mahayoga tantras
appeared in this world when revealed by Vajrasattva and the Lord
of Secrets to King Jah, the ruler of Zahor, who was born 112 years
after Buddha’s nirvana. Some of the contemporary lineage holders
were Uparaja, Kukuraja, Vimalakirti, and Jnanamitra. Subsequent
masters were Shakputri, the regent and son of King Jah, King Jah’s
daughter Gomadevi, Singaraja, Lilavajra, Buddhaguhya and Vajrahasya.
The following generation of lineage holders were Bhashita, Prabhahasti,
and Padmasambhava, the latter of whom also received the tantras
directly from King Jah.
| Tantras, scriptures and instructions
(rgyud lung man ngag). The teachings of Mahayoga, Anu
Yoga, and Ati Yoga respectively.
| Tantric (rgyud kyi, sngags
kyi). Of or pertaining to Vajrayana.
| Tantrika (sngags pa).
‘Tantric practitioner,’ ngakpa. A person who has received
empowerment, continues sadhana practice and keeps the sacred commitments.
In particular, an adept follower of Mahayoga Tantra.
| Tara Goddess (sgrol ma
lha mo). ‘Divine Savioress.’ A important female bodhisattva
of compassion, the one who takes beings across the ocean of samsara.
There are twenty-one forms of Tara while the most popular are the
white and green Taras.
| Tathagata (de bzhin gshegs
pa). ‘Thus-gone.’ Same as a fully enlightened buddha.
| Tatvasamgraha Root Tantra
(rtsa ba’i rgyud de kho na nyid bsdus pa). One the Four Major
Sections of Yoga Tantra.
| Tenma Goddesses (brtan
ma). See Twelve Tenma Goddesses.
| Terma (gter ma). ‘Treasure.’
1) The transmission through concealed treasures hidden, mainly by
Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal, to be discovered at the proper
time by a ‘terton,’ a treasure revealer, for the
benefit of future disciples. It is one of the two chief traditions
of the Nyingma School, the other being ‘Kama.’ This
tradition is said to continue even long after the Vinaya of the
Buddha has disappeared. 2) Concealed treasures of many different
kinds, including texts, ritual objects, relics, and natural objects.
| Terma treasures (gter
ma). See Terma.
| Terton (gter ston).
A revealer of hidden treasures, concealed mainly by Guru Rinpoche
and Yeshe Tsogyal.
| Thread-cross (mdos). A
tantric ritual involving structures of sticks with colored yarn
used to appease mundane spirits.
| Three Inner Tantras (nang
rgyud sde gsum). Mahayoga, Anu Yoga, and Ati Yoga. These three sections
of tantra are the special characteristics of the Nyingma School
of the Early Translations. According to Jamgon Kongtrul
the First, “The Three Inner Tantras are also known as the
‘Vehicles of the Methods of Mastery’ because they establish
the way to experience that the world and beings are the nature of
mind manifest as kayas and wisdoms, that everything is the ‘indivisibility
of the superior two truths,’ and hereby ensuring that the
practitioner will become adept in the method of gaining mastery
over all phenomena as being great equality.” The Three Inner
Tantras are, respectively, also renowned as ‘development,
completion, and great perfection’ or as ‘tantras, scriptures,
and instructions.’ According to Mipham Rinpoche, the Three
Inner Tantras reached Tibet through six different lines of transmission:
1) As perceived by ordinary people in Tibet, Padmakara, the Second
Buddha, taught only the Instruction on the Garland of Views but
bestowed both the profound and extensive empowerments and instructions
of all of the Three Inner Tantras to his exceptional disciples including
Sangye Yeshe, Rinchen Chok, Lui Wangpo of Khon, and many others,
the oral lineages of which have continued unbroken until this very
day. Moreover, the major part of his teachings were sealed as terma
treasures for the benefit of followers in future generations. 2)
When the great translator Vairotsana extensively had received the
profound teachings of the Great Perfection from the Twenty-five
Panditas, especially from Shri Singha, he returned to Tibet and
imparted the Mind Section five times, as well as the oral lineage
of the Space Section, both of which are continued uninterruptedly.
3) The great pandita Vimalamitra arrived in Tibet and taught the
Instruction Section chiefly to Tingdzin Sangpo of Nyang. This lineage
was transmitted both orally and through terma treasures. 4) Sangye
Yeshe of Nub received from four masters in India, Nepal and Drusha
innumerable teachings headed by the important scriptures of Anu
Yoga and Yamantaka. His lineage of the Scripture of the Embodiment
of the Realization of All Buddhas is still unbroken. 5) Namkhai Nyingpo received the transmission of the teachings of Vishuddha
from the Indian master Hungkara which he then spread in Tibet. 6)
During following generations, incarnations of the king and the close
disciples of Padmasambhava have, and still continue to do so, successively
appeared, as great masters who at opportune times reveal the profound
teachings that had been concealed as terma treasures, in order to
ensure the supreme welfare of people in Tibet and all other countries,
both temporarily and ultimately.
| Three Jewels (dkon mchog
gsum). The Precious Buddha, the Precious Dharma and the Precious
| Three kayas (sku gsum).
Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. The three kayas as ground
are ‘essence, nature, and expression,’ as path they
are ‘bliss, clarity and nonthought,’ and as fruition
they are the ‘three kayas of buddhahood.’ The three
kayas of buddhahood are the dharmakaya which is free from elaborate
constructs and endowed with the ‘twenty-one sets of enlightened
qualities;’ the sambhogakaya which is of the nature of light
and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only
to bodhisattvas on the levels; and the nirmanakaya which manifests
in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. In the context
of this book, the three kayas are sometimes Buddha Amitabha, Avalokiteshvara,
| Three realms (khams gsum).
The samsaric realms of Desire, Form and Formlessness.
| Three Sections of Dzogchen
(rdzogs chen sde gsum). After Garab Dorje established the six million
four hundred thousand tantras of Dzogchen in the human world, his
chief disciple, Manjushrimitra, arranged these tantras into three
categories: the Mind Section emphasizing luminosity, the Space Section
emphasizing emptiness, and the Instruction Section emphasizing their
| Three trainings (bslab
pa gsum). The trainings of discipline, concentration, and discriminating
| Tika (thig le). Essence;
| Tilaka (thig le). Essence;
| Torma (gtor ma). An implement
used in tantric ceremonies. Can also refer to a food offering to
protectors of the Dharma or unfortunate spirits.
| Tramen (phra men). Goddesses
with human bodies and animal heads. ‘Tramen’ means ‘hybrid’
| Tri Ralpachen (khri ral
pa can). See Ralpachen.
| Tripitaka (sde snod gsum).
The three collections of the teachings of Buddha Shakyamuni: Vinaya,
Sutra, and Abhidharma. Their purpose is the development of the three
trainings of discipline, concentration and discriminating knowledge
while their function is to remedy the three poisons of desire, anger
and delusion. The Tibetan version of the Tripitaka fills more than
one hundred large volumes, each with more than 600 pages.
| Triple-storied Central Temple
(dbu rtse rigs / rim gsum). The central structure at the temple
complex of Samye.
| Trisong Deutsen (khri
srong de’u btsan). (790-844) The second great Dharma king
of Tibet who invited Guru Rinpoche, Shantarakshita, Vimalamitra,
and many other Buddhist teachers including Jinamitra and Danashila.
In The Precious Garland of Lapis Lazuli, Jamgon Kongtrul
date Trisong Deutsen as being born on the eighth day of the third
month of spring in the year of the Male Water Horse (802). Other
sources state that year as his enthronement upon the death of his
father. Until the age of seventeen he was chiefly engaged in ruling
the kingdom. He built Samye, the great monastery and teaching center
modeled after Odantapuri, established Buddhism as the state religion
of Tibet, and during his reign the first monks were ordained. He
arranged for panditas and lotsawas to translate innumerable sacred
texts, and he established a large number of centers for teaching
| Trulnang (‘phrul
snang). One of two important temples in Lhasa built by King Songtsen
Gampo and housing a statue of Buddha Shakyamuni.
| Tsangpo (gtsang po, Skt.
Brahmaputra). The river flowing by Samye.
| Tsele Natsok Rangdrol
(rtse le sna tshogs rang grol). (b. 1608) Important master of the
Kagyu and Nyingma schools. He is also the author of Mirror
of Mindfulness and Lamp of Mahamudra, both Shambhala Publications.
| Tsemang of Denma (ldan ma rtse
mang). Important early Tibetan translator of the Tripitaka. Extremely
well-versed in writing, his style of calligraphy is continued to
the present day. Having received transmission of Vajrayana from
Padmasambhava, he had realization and achieved perfect recall. He
is said to be the chief scribe who wrote down many termas including
the Assemblage of
Sugatas connected to the Eight Sadhana
| Tsogyal (mtsho rgyal).
See Yeshe Tsogyal.
| Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche
(sprul sku u rgyan rin po che). A contemporary master of the Kagyu
and Nyingma lineages, who lives at Nagi Gompa in Nepal.
| Twelve Kyongma Goddesses
(skyong ma bcu gnyis). Retinue of the Twelve Tenma Goddesses.
| Twelve Tenma Goddesses
(brtan ma bcu gnyis). Important female protectors of the Nyingma
lineage, semi-mundane semi-wisdom protectors.
| Twelve Yama Goddesses
(ya ma bcu gnyis). Retinue of the Twelve Tenma Goddesses.
| Twelvefold Kilaya Tantra
(ki la ya bcu gnyis). Tantra belonging to the Sadhana Section of
Mahayoga. Tantras with similar titles are found in Vol. DZA and
HA of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Twenty-eight shvari goddesses
(dbang phyug ma nyer brgyad). Wrathful emanations of the four female
gate keepers among the 42 peaceful deities in the mandala of Magical
Net; seven for each of the four activities.
| Twenty-five tantras (rgyud
nyi shu rtsa lnga). Dzogchen tantras belonging to the Mind Section
and possibly also the Space Section, taught by Shri Singha to Vairotsana
and Lekdrub. Listed in Chapter Fourteen.
| Two stages (rim gnyis).
See ‘development stage’ and ‘completion stage.’
| Ubhaya (gnyis ka). ‘Both’
or ‘twin.’ The second of the three outer sections of
tantra, usually known as Upa Yoga. The scriptures appeared first
in Mount Jakang Chen and Cool Grove. The name refers to a combination
of two aspects: the conduct of Kriya Yoga and the view of Yoga Tantra.
| Uddiyana (u rgyan, o rgyan).
The country to the north-west of ancient India where Guru Rinpoche
was born on a lotus flower. The literal meaning of Uddiyana is ‘vehicle
of flying’ or ‘going above and far.’ See also
‘Orgyen’ which is a corruption of the Indian word.
| Unified stage of the path of training
(slob pa’i zung ‘jug). A high level of accomplishment.
Same as the vidyadhara level of mahamudra.
| Unsurpassable Magical Net
(sgyu ‘phrul bla ma). A Mahayoga scripture. Vol. PHA of the
| Upa Yoga (Skt.). See Ubhaya
| Ushnika (gtsug thor) A
protuberance which raises infinitely into space from the top of
a buddha’s head. It can be seen only by a bodhisattva who
attained the first bhumi.
| Vairochana (rnam par snang
mdzad). 1) One of the five families, the chief buddha of the tathagata
family. 2) The great and unequalled translator during the reign
of King Trisong Deutsen. Vairotsana, (also pronounced vairo-tsa-na),
was recognized by Padmakara as a reincarnation of an Indian pandita.
He was among the first seven monks and was sent to India to study
with Shri Singha. Shri Singha in turn entrusted Vairotsana with
the task of propagating the Mind Section and Space Section of Dzogchen
in Tibet. He is one of the three main masters to bring the Dzogchen
teachings to Tibet, the two others being Padmakara and Vimalamitra.
Vairotsana’s chief disciples were Yudra Nyingpo, Sangton
Yeshe Lama, Pang Gen Sangye Gonpo, Jnana Kumara of Nyag, and
Lady Yeshe Dronma. An especially renowned disciple was the
old Pang Gen Mipham Gonpo whose disciples attained the rainbow
body for seven generations by means of the oral instructions entitled
Dorje Zampa, the Vajra Bridge. Tsele Natsok Rangdrol, Terdag
Lingpa Gyurmey Dorje, and Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye
are regarded as reincarnations of Vairotsana.
| Vajra (rdo rje). ‘Diamond,’
‘king of stones.’ As an adjective it means indestructible,
invincible, firm etc. The ultimate vajra is emptiness, the conventional
vajra is the ritual implement of material substance.
| Vajra Kilaya (rdo rje
phur ba). One of the main yidams of the Nyingma School belonging
to the Eight Sadhana Teachings.
| Vajra master (rdo rje
slob dpon). A tantric master who is adept in the rituals and meaning
of Vajrayana. The master from whom one receives tantric teaching
and empowerment. Can also refer to the master who presides over
a tantric ritual.
| Vajra Seat (rdo rje gdan,
Skt. vajrasana). The ‘diamond seat’ under the Bodhi
Tree in Bodhgaya where Buddha Shakyamuni attained enlightenment.
| Vajra Thotreng Tsal
(rdo rje thod phreng rtsal). ‘Powerful Vajra Garland of skulls.’
One of Padmasambhava’s names.
| Vajra Varahi (rdo rje
phag mo). A sambhogakaya manifestation of the female buddha Samantabhadri.
She is also one of the chief yidam deities of the Sarma Schools,
as well as a wisdom dakini.
| Vajradhara (rdo rje ‘chang).
‘Vajra-holder.’ The dharmakaya buddha of the Sarma Schools.
Can also refer to one’s personal teacher of Vajrayana or to
the all-embracing buddha nature.
| Vajradhatu (rdo rje dbyings).
Indestructible innate space.
| Vajradhatu Mandala of Peaceful Deities
(zhi ba rdo rje dbyings kyi dkyil ‘khor). An important
sadhana of Mahayoga. See also ‘Forty-two peaceful deities.’
| Vajrakaya (rdo rje sku).
The unchanging quality of the buddha nature. Sometimes counted among
the five kayas of buddhahood.
| Vajrapani (phyag na rdo
rje). ‘Vajra Bearer.’ One of the eight great bodhisattvas
and the chief compiler of the Vajrayana teachings. Also known as
‘Lord of Secrets.’
| Vajrasattva (rdo rje sems
dpa’). A sambhogakaya buddha who embodies all of the five
or hundred buddha families. He is also a support for purification
| Vajrayana (rdo rje theg
pa). The ‘vajra vehicle.’ The practices of taking the
result as the path. Same as ‘Secret Mantra.’
| Vehicle (theg pa). The
practice of a set of teachings which ‘carries’ one to
the level of fruition. In Buddhism there are mainly three vehicles:
Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana.
| Vidyadhara (rig pa ‘dzin
pa). ‘Knowledge-holder.’ Holder (dhara) or bearer of
knowledge (vidya) mantra. A realized master on one of the four stages
on the tantric path of Mahayoga, the tantric equivalent of the eleven
levels. Another definition is: Bearer of the profound method, the
knowledge which is the wisdom of deity, mantra and great bliss.
| Vidyadhara Accomplishment Tantra
(rig ‘dzin grub pa’i rgyud). One of the Eighteen
Mahayoga Tantras. The Golden Garland Chronicles names this scripture
The Tantra of Six Vidyadharas (rig ‘dzin drug pa’i rgyud).
| Vidyadhara level of longevity
(tshe’i rig ‘dzin, tshe la dbang ba’i rig ‘dzin).
The second of the four vidyadhara levels. Corresponds to the path
of seeing. The practitioner’s body turns into the subtle vajra-like
body while his mind matures into the wisdom of the path of seeing.
It is the attainment of longevity beyond birth and death.
| Vidyadhara level of mahamudra
(phyag rgya chen po’i rig ‘dzin). The third of the four
vidyadhara levels. The stage of the path of cultivation; the practitioner
emerges from the luminosity of the path of seeing in the form of
the wisdom body of unified state of the ‘path of training.’
| Vidyadhara level of maturation
(rnam par smin pa’i rig ‘dzin). The first of the four
vidyadhara levels. The beginning of the path of seeing; the practitioner
has reached stability in the development stage and his mind has
‘matured’ into the form of the yidam deity, but he is
yet to purify the remainder of the physical elements.
| Vidyadhara level of spontaneous
perfection (lhun gyis grub pa’i rig ‘dzin).
The fourth of the four vidyadhara levels. Corresponds to buddhahood,
the path beyond training. The final fruition and state of a vajra
holder endowed with the spontaneously perfected five kayas: dharmakaya,
sambhogakaya, nirmanakaya, vajrakaya, and abhisambodhikaya.
| View, meditation, conduct and fruition
(lta ba sgom pa spyod pa ‘bras bu). The philosophical
orientation, the act of growing accustomed to that - usually in
sitting practice, the implementation of that insight during the
activities of daily life, and the final outcome resulting from such
training. Each of the nine vehicles has its particular definition
of view, meditation, conduct and fruition.
(dri med bshes gnyen). A master in the Dzogchen lineage
and the crown ornament of five hundred panditas, who had attained
the indestructible form of the rainbow body.
| Vinaya (‘dul ba).
‘Discipline.’ One of the three parts of the Tripitaka.
The Buddha’s teachings showing ethics, the discipline and
moral conduct that is the foundation for all Dharma practice, both
for lay and ordained people.
| Vishuddha (yang dag).
The heruka of the vajra family or the tantric teachings connected
to that wrathful deity. One of the Eight Sadhana Teachings of the
| Vishuddha Heruka (yang
dag he ru ka). See Vishuddha.
| Vishuddha Mind (yang dag
thugs). See Vishuddha.
| War Goddess of Shangshung
(zhang zhung gi dgra lha). A protectress of the Bonpo doctrine.
She was subjugated by Padmasambhava and given the name Great Glacier
Lady of Invincible Turquoise Mist.
| Wheel of Yama (gshin rje’i
‘khor lo). Tantra belonging to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga;
focused on a wrathful form of Manjushri.
| White Skull Naga Forefather
(klu’i mes po thod dkar). Another name for the protector Nyenchen
| Wind of karma (las kyi
rlung). 1) Another word for conceptual thinking. 2) The inevitable
force of the ripening effect of former deeds.
| Wisdom dakini (ye shes
kyi mkha’ ‘gro ma). Enlightened female being, the root
of activity among the Three Roots.
| Wishfulfilling jewel (yid
bzhin nor bu). A gem which grants the fulfillment of all one could
desire; thus the Buddha, one’s personal master, and the nature
of mind are often referred to as a wish-fulfilling gem.
| World-system (‘jig
rten gyi khams). A universe comprised of Mount Sumeru, four continents
and eight sub-continents.
| Wrathful Blue Lotus Tantra
(khro bo pun da ri ka’i rgyud). One of the Eighteen Mahayoga
Tantras; focused on Vishuddha Mind. Found in Vol. RA of the Nyingma Gyubum.
| Yaksha (gnod sbyin). A
class of semidivine beings, generally benevolent but sometimes wicked.
Many are powerful local divinities, others live on Mount Sumeru,
guarding the realm of the gods.
| Yama (gshin rje). The
Lord of Death. A personification of impermanence, the unfailing
law of karma and one’s inevitable mortality.
| Yamantaka (gshin rje gshed).
A wrathful form of Manjushri, representing wisdom that subdues death.
Among the Eight Sadhana Teachings he is the wrathful buddha of the
Body Family. In this book he is named ‘Manjushri Body.’
| Yanglesho (yang le
shod). See Cave of Yanglesho.
| Yarlha Shampo (yar lha
sham po). Important Dharma protectors of Tibet, especially for the
| Yeshe Dey of Nanam (sna
nam ye shes sde). Also known as Bandey Yeshe Dey of Shang (zhang
gi bhan dhe ye shes sde). Prolific expert translator and disciple
of Padmasambhava. He was a monk, both learned and accomplished,
and once exhibited his miraculous powers by soaring through the
sky like a bird.
Tsogyal (ye shes mtsho rgyal).
| Yeshe Yang (ye shes dbyangs).
Tibetan translator predicted by Padmasambhava. The chief scribe
for writing down the termas of Padmasambhava. He was an accomplished
yogi, able to fly like a bird to the celestial realms. Also known
as Yeshe Yang of Ba (sba) or Atsara Yeshe Yang.
| Yidam (yi dam). A personal
deity and the root of accomplishment among the Three Roots. The
yidam is one’s tutelary deity; a personal protector of one’s
practice and guide to enlightenment. Traditionally, yidam practice
is the main practice that follows the preliminaries. It includes
the two stages of development and completion and is a perfect stepping
stone for, or the bridge to approaching, the more subtle practices
of Mahamudra and Dzogchen. Later on, yidam practice is the perfect
enhancement for the view of these subtle practices.
| Yoga (rnal ‘byor).
1) The actual integration of learning into personal experience.
2) See Yoga Tantra.
| Yoga of shape (dbyibs
kyi rnal ‘byor). A synonym for the development stage; the
practice of visualizing the form of the deity.
| Yoga of vidyadhara life
(rnal ‘byor tshe’i rig ‘dzin). The tantric practice
of attaining immortality by accomplishing the ‘vidyadhara
level of longevity.’
| Yoga Tantra (rnal ‘byor
rgyud). The third of the three outer tantras: Kriya, Upa and Yoga.
It emphasizes the view rather than the conduct and to regard the
deity as being the same level as oneself.
| Yoga vidyadhara level of longevity
(rnal ‘byor tshe’i rig ‘dzin). See ‘vidyadhara
level of longevity.’
| Yogi / yogin (rnal ‘byor
pa). Tantric practitioner. In this book, the word yogi often holds
the connotation of someone of who has already some level of realization
of the natural state of mind.
| Yogic (rnal ‘byor
gyi). Of, or pertaining to, Vajrayana practice with emphasis on
personal training as opposed to scholarly learning.
| Yogic discipline (rtul
shugs). Additional practices for a tantrika in order to train in
implementing the view of Vajrayana in daily activities; for example
| Yudra Nyingpo (g.yu sgra snying
po). One of the twenty-five disciples
of Guru Rinpoche; the reincarnation of Lekdrup of Tsang. Born
in the region of Gyalmo Tsawarong, he was brought up by Vairotsana
and reached perfection in both learning and yogic accomplishment.
He is counted among the 108 lotsawas and is one of the main lineage
holders of the Mind Section of Dzogchen from the great translator
| Zahor (za hor). An ancient
Indian kingdom believed to be situated around Mandir the present
state of Himachal Pradesh in the northern part of India.
| Zi stone (gzi). Divine